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Physiology Tutorial REPRODUCTION . Prepared by Dr. Zahoor Ali Shaikh. Female reproductive system. When ova appear in the ovary? How many ova are there in a ovary at 5 th month of gestation? At birth? At puberty? How many ova mature during a average reproductive life of a female?

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physiology tutorial reproduction

Physiology TutorialREPRODUCTION

Prepared by

Dr. Zahoor Ali Shaikh

female reproductive system
Female reproductive system
  • When ova appear in the ovary?
  • How many ova are there in a ovary at
    • 5th month of gestation?
    • At birth?
    • At puberty?
  • How many ova mature during a average reproductive life of a female?
  • Why ova are in millions when only about 400 are required during the reproductive life of a female?
  • Define menstrual cycle.
female reproductive system1
Female reproductive system
  • What are the phases of ovarian cycle?
  • Which hormones from the hypothalamus / anterior pituitary control ovarian cycle?
  • What is LH surge?
  • Say true or False

Moderate level of estrogen inhibit LH secretion where as high level of estrogen stimulate LH surge

female reproductive system2
Female reproductive system
  • What are the uterine phases of menstrual cycle? What is the duration of each phase.
  • What is the total duration of menstrual cycle.
  • How much is the average menstrual blood loss?
  • Draw the diagram of menstrual cycle
female reproductive system3
Female reproductive system
  • Why there is no menstruation during
    • Childhood
    • Pregnancy
    • Menopause
  • During menopause, what is the level of FSH & LH?
  • What types of menstrual irregularities occurs in athlete (AMI)?
  • What is the cause of Athlete menstrual irregularities (AMI) ?
pregnancy lactation
Pregnancy & Lactation
  • What is the site of fertilization?
  • Where implantation of blastocyst occurs in the uterus?
  • When implantation of blastocyst occurs in the uterus?
  • What is placenta?
  • What are the functions of placenta?
pregnancy lactation1
Pregnancy & Lactation
  • What is placental barrier? What is its function?
  • What are the hormones secreted by placenta?
  • When placenta get fully operational?

9. What are the stages of labor?

pregnancy lactation2
Pregnancy & Lactation
  • What initiates the labor?
  • What is breech presentation?
  • Does the breech presentation causes effective dilatation of cervix?
  • How long each stage of labor lasts in primigravida female?
      • Ist stage
      • Second stage
      • Third stage
  • What is the role of oxytocin in labor?
  • How much time is required for involution of uterus?
pregnancy lactation3
Pregnancy & Lactation
  • Why lactation start after pregnancy and not during pregnancy?
  • How suckling reflex occurs?
  • Name the hormone responsible for milk production?
  • Name the hormone responsible for milk let down?
  • Is there menstrual cycle during lactation period?
  • If NO, Why?
pregnancy lactation4
Pregnancy & Lactation
  • How long the baby should be given breast milk?
  • What are the advantages of breast milk to the baby & the mother?
  • What is the composition of mother’s milk?
  • What is the mechanism of breast milk production?
sexual act contraception
Sexual act & contraception
  • What is the mechanism of male organ erection?
  • What is impotence? What are its causes?
  • What is the mechanism of action of Viagra in male?
  • What are the physiological phases of sexual act in male & female?
sexual act contraception1
Sexual act & contraception
  • What is the composition of semen?
  • What is normal sperm count per ml of semen?
  • When is male said to be clinically infertile?
  • What is the importance of quality and sperm count of semen?
  • What are the causes of infertility in male & female?
sexual act contraception2
Sexual act & contraception
  • What is invitro fertilization?
  • What is invivo fertilization?
  • What are the methods of contraception?
  • What is mechanism of action of progesterone as a contraceptive?
  • What are the side effects of contraceptive pills?
  • Spermatogenesis takes place in seminiferous tubule. Which two hormone control it?
sexual act contraception3
Sexual act & contraception

16. Detection of which hormone in the urine will make positive pregnancy test?

questions to research
Questions to research
  • Why sperm count is 1million /ml. and only one sperm is required for fertilization of ovum.
  • At puberty there are 300,000 ova in the ovaries and only 400 – 500 ova ovulate during the reproductive life of female? What happens to the remaining ?
  • Why mother does not reject the fertilized ovum which has half number of chromosomes from father?
ivf pioneer
IVF PIONEER

The team who pioneered in-vitro fertilization. On the left Cambridge, physiologist Dr. Robert Edwards holding the world\'s first test tube baby, Louise Joy Brown and (on the right) gynecologist Mr. Patrick Steptoe. (July 25, 1978)

British physiologist Robert Edwards, who developed test tube fertilization, has received the 2010 Nobel Prize in medicine.

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