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Designing Active Directory for Security. Designing Your Forest Structure Designing Your Domain Structure Designing an OU Structure Designing an Audit Strategy. Designing Your Forest Structure. Active Directory design basics Deploying a single forest Deploying multiple forests.

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designing active directory for security
Designing Active Directory for Security
  • Designing Your Forest Structure
  • Designing Your Domain Structure
  • Designing an OU Structure
  • Designing an Audit Strategy
designing your forest structure
Designing Your Forest Structure
  • Active Directory design basics
  • Deploying a single forest
  • Deploying multiple forests
deploying a single forest
Deploying a Single Forest
  • The most common configuration for deploying Active Directory
  • Shares information across every component domain in the forest
shared information
Shared Information
  • Schema
    • Defines all classes and attributes used within the forest
  • Configuration
    • Maintains a listing of all domains and sites within a forest
  • Global catalog
    • Maintains a partial set of attributes for all objects
inter domain trusts
Inter-Domain Trusts
  • Domains are joined together by Kerberos v5 transitive trust relationships.
  • Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 domain trusts are not transitive in nature.
making the decision single forest
Making the Decision: Single Forest
  • Uses the same software across the organization
  • Minimizes forest-wide configuration
  • Reduces the management of forest-wide administrative groups
  • Allows single, enterprise-wide searches
  • Reduces management of trust relationships
applying the decision a single forest at wide world importers
Applying the Decision: A Single Forest at Wide World Importers
  • No business case exists that would require the deployment of multiple forests.
  • Having distribution and service centers spread across national boundaries is not a business reason for creating separate forests.
  • Standardizing applications and the need for centrally managed user accounts indicates a need to implement a single forest.
implementing multiple forests in limited scenarios
Implementing Multiple Forests in Limited Scenarios
  • Decentralized organizations that perform most of their network operations within their own sector of the organization
  • An ISP that does not want a common directory for all of its clients
disadvantages of deploying multiple forests
Disadvantages of Deploying Multiple Forests
  • A more complicated and expensive domain structure
  • Additional management costs for forest-wide components
  • Additional management costs for trust relationships
  • Limited use of user principal names (UPNs)
  • Smart card limits
making the decision possible reasons for multiple forests
Making the Decision: Possible Reasons for Multiple Forests
  • Short-lived joint ventures
  • Mergers between companies running separate Active Directories
  • Disagreement on change policies
  • Differing schema requirements
  • Distrust among administrators
  • Scope of transitive trust relationships
  • Limited replication of the global catalog
  • Need for preventing user accounts from appearing in the global catalog
deploying multiple forests at wide world importers
Deploying Multiple Forests at Wide World Importers
  • Deploy multiple forests if a merger takes place, due to either takeover or acquisition, where the other organization has already deployed Microsoft Windows 2000 Active Directory.
    • During the initial period, maintain separate forests to allow connectivity between the two forests.
    • Define explicit trust relationships between domains where resource access must take place.
    • To merge the two forests, analyze schema modifications to ensure a smooth transition to a single forest.
designing the domain structure
Designing the Domain Structure
  • Deploying a single domain
  • Deploying multiple domains
making the decision advantages of a single domain
Making the Decision: Advantages of a Single Domain
  • Reduces management of the forest
  • Reduces the number of required domain controllers (DCs)
  • Reduces the dependency on global catalog servers for authentication
  • Provides an easier migration path to multiple domains
applying the decision using a single domain at wide world importers
Applying the Decision: Using a Single Domain at Wide World Importers
  • Initially start with a single domain.
  • Business objectives may require the implementation of multiple domains.
  • It is easy to migrate from a single domain to multiple domains.
  • No additional costs involved with initially deploying a single domain.
deploying multiple domains
Deploying Multiple Domains
  • Implement multiple domains when there is a requirement for differing account policies.
  • Account policies cannot be varied within a single domain.
understanding account policies categories of configuration
Understanding Account Policies:Categories of Configuration
  • Password Policy
    • Defines the characteristics of passwords that may be used to authenticate to the domain
  • Account Lockout Policy
    • Defines what actions must be taken when a specified amount of failed logon attempts take place in a short duration of time
  • Kerberos Policy
    • Defines the maximum ticket lifetimes for Kerberos authentication and tolerances for clock synchronization between client computers and servers
password policy
Password Policy
  • Enforce Password History
  • Maximum Password Age
  • Minimum Password Age
  • Minimum Password Length
  • Passwords Must Meet Complexity Requirements
  • Store Password Using Reversible Encryption For All Users In The Domain
account lockout policy
Account Lockout Policy
  • Account Lockout Duration
  • Account Lockout Threshold
  • Reset Account Lockout Counter After
kerberos policy
Kerberos Policy
  • Enforce User Logon Restrictions
  • Maximum Lifetime For Service Ticket
  • Maximum Lifetime For User Ticket
  • Maximum Lifetime For User Ticket Renewal
  • Maximum Tolerance For Computer Clock Synchronization
making the decision when to deploy multiple domains
Making the Decision: When to Deploy Multiple Domains
  • Differing account policies
  • Replication issues
  • International considerations
  • Political reasons
  • Separate enterprise administration accounts
applying the decision multiple domains at wide world importers
Applying the Decision: Multiple Domains at Wide World Importers
  • Separate account policies need to be defined for the Engineering department.
  • Separate domains are not required based on offices in both the United States and Canada.
  • The current utilization of WAN links between offices is sufficient to support replication of a single domain.
  • The organization can deploy either a two-domain or three-domain forest.
designing an ou structure
Designing an OU Structure
  • Planning for delegation of administration
  • Planning for Group Policy deployment
planning for delegation of administration microsoft windows 2000
Planning for Delegation of Administration: Microsoft Windows 2000
  • Design is based on the ability to delegate administration to
    • Specific OUs
    • Specific objects within an OU
    • Specific attributes of an object
planning for delegation of administration microsoft windows nt
Planning for Delegation of Administration:Microsoft Windows NT
  • Microsoft Windows NT required that administration be delegated by creating resource domains.
  • Windows NT resource domains often led to excessive user rights being assigned and excessive resource domains being created.
the delegation of control wizard
The Delegation Of Control Wizard
  • Used to delegate administration to specific OUs
  • Allows you to delegate the management of Active Directory objects
  • Accessed by right-clicking a container in Active Directory Users And Computers and selecting Delegate Control
default options set by the delegation of control wizard
Default Options Set by the Delegation Of Control Wizard
  • Users Or Groups
  • To Delegate Tasks
  • Custom Tasks
  • Custom Permissions
making the decision delegation of administration overview
Making the Decision: Delegation of Administration Overview
  • Delegate minimum rights.
  • Delegate rights to specific users or groups.
  • Do not assign rights based on the Account Operators or Server Operators groups.
  • Test the design.
  • Audit success and failures for directory management.
  • Enable success and failure audits for directory service access on the OU.
making the decision delegation of administration design
Making the Decision: Delegation of Administration Design
  • Determine to which users administration will be delegated.
  • Determine where to delegate administration in the OU hierarchy.
  • Determine which types of objects to delegate for administration.
  • Determine the required minimum set of rights.
applying the decision delegation of administration design at wide world importers
Applying the Decision: Delegation of Administration Design at Wide World Importers
  • Business requirements
    • Create an OU structure for the Engineering domain that allows a nominated user to maintain group memberships of the Engineering user accounts for their distribution center.
    • Require the head of the IT department for Engineers at the Washington office to manage all Engineering accounts within the domain.
  • OU structure facilitates the required delegation of authority required by the Engineering department.
planning for group policy deployment
Planning for Group Policy Deployment
  • Group Policy can be applied to local computers, sites, domains, and OUs.
  • Group Policy can be configured for both users and computers.
  • An OU structure can ultimately separate computers and users into different OUs.
making the decision ou group policy requirements
Making the Decision: OU Group Policy Requirements
  • Create an OU structure that does not require blocking inheritance.
  • Limit the use of Site Group Policies in a multiple-domain environment.
  • Limit the number of OU levels where the Group Policy is applied.
  • Apply only the necessary settings.
applying the decision ou design based on group policy at wide world importers
Applying the Decision: OU Design Based on Group Policy at Wide World Importers
  • Two requirements necessitate configuration of Group Policy at Wide World Importers:
    • Deployment of consistent security configuration for all computers
    • Deployment of software for users
designing an audit strategy
Designing an Audit Strategy
  • Configuring auditing settings
audit strategy overview
Audit Strategy Overview
  • Auditing is used to track who accessed specific resources and who performed specific actions.
  • Tracked in the Security Log of the Windows 2000 Event Viewer.
  • Audit settings can be configured within the Audit Policy.
  • Indicate which individual objects are included in the audit.
audit policies for a domain
Audit Policies for a Domain
  • Audit Account Logon Events
  • Audit Account Management
  • Audit Directory Service Access
  • Audit Logon Events
  • Audit Object Access
  • Audit Policy Change
  • Audit Privilege Use
  • Audit Process Tracking
  • Audit System Events
making the decision determining the audit strategy
Making the Decision: Determining the Audit Strategy
  • Determine where to apply the audit settings.
  • Define DC audit settings in the Domain Controllers OU.
  • Collect computers with similar audit requirements into common OUs.
  • Do not audit all events.
  • Mix failure and success audits.
  • Match audit strategy to the organization\'s risk level.
applying the decision determining the audit strategy for wide world importers
Applying the Decision: Determining the Audit Strategy for Wide World Importers
  • The current network deployment is only concerned with internal network auditing.
  • Less emphasis can be placed on auditing for external attacks.
proposed auditing structure
Proposed Auditing Structure
  • Audit the following:
    • Failure of the account logon events
    • Success and failure of the account management events
    • Success and failure of the object access events
    • Success and failure of the policy change events
    • Success and failure of the system events
audit information contained in the security log
Audit Information Contained in the Security Log
  • All account management tasks
  • Account logon event failures
  • Success and failure auditing for object access (if enabled)
  • Success and failure events for policy changes
  • Success and failure for system events
chapter summary
Chapter Summary
  • Deploying a single forest
  • Deploying multiple forests
  • Deploying a single domain
  • Deploying multiple domains
  • Designing the delegation of administration
  • OUs based on Group Policy requirements
  • Success or failure audits
  • Audit design strategy