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Chapter 1. Principles and Terminology. Anatomic Position. Upright ___________ to the side __________ forward Head straight __________ straight. Important Terminology. __________ Plane Right and left Coronal Plane Anterior (front) and posterior (back) ___________Plane

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

Principles and Terminology

anatomic position
Anatomic Position
  • Upright
  • ___________ to the side
  • __________ forward
  • Head straight
  • __________ straight
important terminology
Important Terminology
  • __________ Plane
    • Right and left
  • Coronal Plane
    • Anterior (front) and posterior (back)
  • ___________Plane
    • Superior (top) and inferior (bottom)
  • Oblique Plane
    • Any ____________
cephalad vs caudad referring to the angle of an x ray tube
__________

An angle toward the head.

____________

An angle away from the head (toward the feet)

Cephalad vs. CaudadReferring to the angle of an X-ray tube
radiographic terminology
Radiographic Terminology
  • ____________- An image receptor with an X-ray image imprinted on it
  • ____________- The production of radiographs
markers
MARKERS
  • It is ____________without them
  • Pt Identification
  • ______________markers
  • Facility Identification
radiographic projections
Radiographic Projections
  • Describes the path of the _____________
posteroanterior and anteroposterior
PA

The CR travels _______ to Anterior

PA Oblique

AP

The CR travels Anterior to _________

AP oblique

Posteroanterior and Anteroposterior
mediolateral and lateromedial
______________

The CR travels from the medial side to the lateral

____________

The CR travels from the lateral side to the medial

Mediolateral and Lateromedial
basic rule
Basic Rule
  • There is a minimum of _____________
    • _____from each other
  • For joints try for 3

(2) 90⁰ from each other

(1) __________

body positions
Body Positions
  • Describes the way the _______is to be placed.
general positions
General Positions
  • ___________
    • On their back
  • Prone

– On their stomach

  • Erect

- Upright

  • _____________

– Lay down (Any way)

specific positions
Specific Positions
  • Lateral

– Side closest to the IR

  • _____________

– In between ____________and Lateral

  • Posterior Oblique
    • Oblique with a specific __________ side closest to the IR
  • Anterior Oblique
    • Oblique with a specific anterior side closest to the IR
decubitus
Decubitus
  • _____________
    • Having a horizontal CR to detect fluid levels
  • Right or Left Lateral (AP or PA) Decubitus
    • The patient lies on right or left side with the CR traveling __________
  • Dorsal Decubitus

– Patient lies on their back and the CR travels horizontal ________

  • ___________Decubitus

– Patient lies on their stomach and the CR travels horizontal (Lateral)

radiographic technique
Radiographic Technique
  • _____________ peak (kVp)(kV)
  • _____________ (mA)
  • Exposure time (s)
slide16
kV
  • Determines the __________of the beam.
  • Gives X-rays the _____________ power
slide17
mAs
  • Combination of mA and s
  • Determines the ___________of the beam
    • More mAs more ___________
image quality factors
Image Quality Factors
  • Density
  • ____________
  • Resolution
  • ___________
density
Density
  • The amount of ____________on a radiograph
  • ______ – Primary controlling factor
  • High density
    • Overexposed (hot)
  • Low density
    • Underexposed
contrast
Contrast
  • The difference in _____________on adjacent areas
  • kV – Primary controlling factor with film
  • __________ contrast (Short-scale)
    • Greater differences
    • Black and White
    • Low kV
  • __________ Contrast (Long-scale)
    • Lesser differences
    • Many shades of Gray
    • High kV
resolution
Resolution
  • Recorded sharpness of structures
    • ____________
  • Various factors influence resolution
      • Focal spot size
      • _________– Source to Image Distance
      • _________ – Object to Image Distance
      • Motion
distortion
Distortion
  • Misrepresentation of object size or shape
    • _________________
      • Increased OID or Decreased SID
    • Shape distortion
      • Tube or part angle
    • ______________
digital imaging
Digital Imaging
  • Technique matters
    • Different effect on image quality ____________
  • mAs
    • Still determines quantity ___________
  • kV
    • Penetrating power. ___________on contrast compared to film.
digital imaging post processing
Digital ImagingPost Processing
  • Windowing
    • ___________ = Contrast
    • __________ = Density
  • Image manipulation
    • ___________
    • Subtraction
    • Annotation
exposure index
Exposure Index
  • Numeric value representing the ________the IR received.
  • “S” Number
    • ___________ proportional to dose
  • Exposure Index
    • ___________proportion
alara
ALARA
  • A – As
  • L - Low
  • A - As
  • R - Reasonably
  • A - Achievable
achieving alara
Achieving ALARA
  • Always wear a personnel monitoring device
    • This is for ______
  • In ______
  • In ______
achieving alara1
Achieving ALARA
  • Holding devices
    • ___________
    • Sandbags
  • Reduce __________ due to motion
  • _____avoid the primary beam without protection.
achieving alara2
Achieving ALARA
  • ______________
    • Expose the area of interest
  • Filtration
    • Get rid of un-diagnostic beams
  • Optimal kV
    • Will reduce __________
  • Avoid repeats
    • It ____________anyway
tech cardinal rules
Tech “Cardinal” Rules
  • ___________
  • ___________
  • ___________
shielding
Shielding
  • Lead for the ___________
    • Blanket, Gown, Part Specific
  • Lead for __________
    • Gown, Gloves, Glasses, Part Specific
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