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Chapter 1. Principles and Terminology. Anatomic Position. Upright ___________ to the side __________ forward Head straight __________ straight. Important Terminology. __________ Plane Right and left Coronal Plane Anterior (front) and posterior (back) ___________Plane

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Principles and Terminology


Anatomic position

Anatomic Position

  • Upright

  • ___________ to the side

  • __________ forward

  • Head straight

  • __________ straight


Important terminology

Important Terminology

  • __________ Plane

    • Right and left

  • Coronal Plane

    • Anterior (front) and posterior (back)

  • ___________Plane

    • Superior (top) and inferior (bottom)

  • Oblique Plane

    • Any ____________


Cephalad vs caudad referring to the angle of an x ray tube

__________

An angle toward the head.

____________

An angle away from the head (toward the feet)

Cephalad vs. CaudadReferring to the angle of an X-ray tube


Radiographic terminology

Radiographic Terminology

  • ____________- An image receptor with an X-ray image imprinted on it

  • ____________- The production of radiographs


Markers

MARKERS

  • It is ____________without them

  • Pt Identification

  • ______________markers

  • Facility Identification


Radiographic projections

Radiographic Projections

  • Describes the path of the _____________


Posteroanterior and anteroposterior

PA

The CR travels _______ to Anterior

PA Oblique

AP

The CR travels Anterior to _________

AP oblique

Posteroanterior and Anteroposterior


Mediolateral and lateromedial

______________

The CR travels from the medial side to the lateral

____________

The CR travels from the lateral side to the medial

Mediolateral and Lateromedial


Basic rule

Basic Rule

  • There is a minimum of _____________

    • _____from each other

  • For joints try for 3

    (2) 90⁰ from each other

    (1) __________


Body positions

Body Positions

  • Describes the way the _______is to be placed.


General positions

General Positions

  • ___________

    • On their back

  • Prone

    – On their stomach

  • Erect

    - Upright

  • _____________

    – Lay down (Any way)


Specific positions

Specific Positions

  • Lateral

    – Side closest to the IR

  • _____________

    – In between ____________and Lateral

  • Posterior Oblique

    • Oblique with a specific __________ side closest to the IR

  • Anterior Oblique

    • Oblique with a specific anterior side closest to the IR


Decubitus

Decubitus

  • _____________

    • Having a horizontal CR to detect fluid levels

  • Right or Left Lateral (AP or PA) Decubitus

    • The patient lies on right or left side with the CR traveling __________

  • Dorsal Decubitus

    – Patient lies on their back and the CR travels horizontal ________

  • ___________Decubitus

    – Patient lies on their stomach and the CR travels horizontal (Lateral)


Radiographic technique

Radiographic Technique

  • _____________ peak (kVp)(kV)

  • _____________ (mA)

  • Exposure time (s)


Chapter 1 2284810

kV

  • Determines the __________of the beam.

  • Gives X-rays the _____________ power


Chapter 1 2284810

mAs

  • Combination of mA and s

  • Determines the ___________of the beam

    • More mAs more ___________


Image quality factors

Image Quality Factors

  • Density

  • ____________

  • Resolution

  • ___________


Density

Density

  • The amount of ____________on a radiograph

  • ______ – Primary controlling factor

  • High density

    • Overexposed (hot)

  • Low density

    • Underexposed


Contrast

Contrast

  • The difference in _____________on adjacent areas

  • kV – Primary controlling factor with film

  • __________ contrast (Short-scale)

    • Greater differences

    • Black and White

    • Low kV

  • __________ Contrast (Long-scale)

    • Lesser differences

    • Many shades of Gray

    • High kV


Resolution

Resolution

  • Recorded sharpness of structures

    • ____________

  • Various factors influence resolution

    • Focal spot size

    • _________– Source to Image Distance

    • _________ – Object to Image Distance

    • Motion


Distortion

Distortion

  • Misrepresentation of object size or shape

    • _________________

      • Increased OID or Decreased SID

    • Shape distortion

      • Tube or part angle

    • ______________


Digital imaging

Digital Imaging

  • Technique matters

    • Different effect on image quality ____________

  • mAs

    • Still determines quantity ___________

  • kV

    • Penetrating power. ___________on contrast compared to film.


Digital imaging post processing

Digital ImagingPost Processing

  • Windowing

    • ___________ = Contrast

    • __________ = Density

  • Image manipulation

    • ___________

    • Subtraction

    • Annotation


Exposure index

Exposure Index

  • Numeric value representing the ________the IR received.

  • “S” Number

    • ___________ proportional to dose

  • Exposure Index

    • ___________proportion


Alara

ALARA

  • A – As

  • L - Low

  • A - As

  • R - Reasonably

  • A - Achievable


Achieving alara

Achieving ALARA

  • Always wear a personnel monitoring device

    • This is for ______

  • In ______

  • In ______


Achieving alara1

Achieving ALARA

  • Holding devices

    • ___________

    • Sandbags

  • Reduce __________ due to motion

  • _____avoid the primary beam without protection.


Achieving alara2

Achieving ALARA

  • ______________

    • Expose the area of interest

  • Filtration

    • Get rid of un-diagnostic beams

  • Optimal kV

    • Will reduce __________

  • Avoid repeats

    • It ____________anyway


Tech cardinal rules

Tech “Cardinal” Rules

  • ___________

  • ___________

  • ___________


Shielding

Shielding

  • Lead for the ___________

    • Blanket, Gown, Part Specific

  • Lead for __________

    • Gown, Gloves, Glasses, Part Specific


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