AP Manorialism. Period Three: 600 – 1450 CE. NY State Standards 2, 4 Common Core RS 2, 6, 9, WS 2. I What was the Manor System (Manorialism)?. Manorialism was an economic system in the Middle Ages. . What Was Manorialism Continued ….
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Period Three: 600 – 1450 CE
NY State Standards 2, 4
Common Core RS 2, 6, 9, WS 2
B) Manorialism was based on the manor (large farming estate).
C) The manor was mostly self sufficient; almost everything needed for survival could be made on the manor.
These little guys are NOT self sufficient.
A) The manor had:
1. A manor house or castle where the Lord lived
2. Plots for farming
3. Woods (for hunting)
5. Mill to grind grain(usually by a stream)
6. Village for serfs (peasants bound to the land by debt)
The force of the water moves the wheel, which moves a grindstone to grind grain into flour. A donkey attached to a grindstone was equal to 15 men, but a water mill was equal to the power of 30 – 60 men!
B) The lord kept 1/3 of the land (domain) for himself.
C) Serfs had to farm the lord’s domain, turn over crops from their own fields and do any other services the lord asked.
D) Serfs could not leave the manor or hunt without permission.
A) There was limited trade existed in Western Europe before the High Middle Ages.
B) Trade was more common in Southern Europe; Venice created an empire based on trade with the Byzantine Empire and the Arab Middle East.
In terms of the traditional social and political organisation, all land in Tonga belonged to the sacred Tui Tonga. After the familiar feudal fashion (for traditional Tongan society was a “fully developed feudal system” 4), there were chiefs who were “lords of large districts of territory” 5 and who held their lands from the king in return for taxes and military service. These “principal barons, as they may be called” 6 sublet their holdings to their lesser kinsmen and followers, and everyone held land from his superior in a pattern similar to that between the king himself and his barons. Gifford quotes W. D. Alexander in this connection as follows: 7
From the Rev. Thos. West we learn that “the lands were held in fief.” The great landlords held them by hereditary right, but subject to the king, and they in turn subdivided them among their kinsmen and followers. It was on the great chiefs that the king depended for military support, which they willingly rendered him, as the title by which they retained their possessions. Through them also the king received a general tribute from the people. The chiefs, also in the order, claimed the services or property of their tenants. The lowest order was ground down and oppressed by that above it. The “Tuas” could not call anything their own. The great chiefs could seize on whatever took their fancy. Besides, the king or his representatives could assess labor upon the whole community whenever he pleased. The chiefs also claimed a share of all the fish taken by their tenants. The most servile homage was rendered to them as in the Society and Hawaiian Islands. On a father's death his property descended to his children. On the mother's death her property remained with her husband and children, not excepting her dower land, which did not revert to her own kindred as in the other western groups, where tribal tenure prevailed. – The Journal of the Polynesian Society
Today all the land in Tonga belongs to the Tongan Crown; but the traditional “inheritances” referred to by Thompson, which correspond to the holdings of the “barons” of former times, are now classified into Royal Estates, the estates held by members of the Tongan Royal Family as their traditional holdings; Noble Estates, the estates held by members of the nobility as their forefathers had done under the king in former times; and Government Estates, the remaining estates which are now under the direct control of the Government of Tonga. 12 The first two categories are often referred to as hereditary estates to distinguish them from Government estates and are now heritable at law as they were by custom. Each such estate is known as a tofia and may run into a thousand or more acres; each member of the Royalty as well as of the nobility may hold several of them in different parts of the kingdom (see fig. 1 for distribution of tofia on Tongatapu). From them, allotments are granted to individual Tongans. On reaching the age of sixteen years, every male Tongan is entitled to receive a grant of 8¼ acres 13 of bush land as a tax allotment and a 99 grant of not more than 1 rood 24 perches in a town or village area as a town allotment. – The Journal of the Polynesian Society Volume 68 1959 > Volume 68, No. 2 > Land tenure and social organization in Tonga, by R. R. Nayacakalou, p 92-114
The king's official court jester, American Jesse Bogdonoff, a former salesman of magnets to relieve back pain, was sued by the government in 2002 for squandering $26 million of Tonga's money (40% of its annual revenue) in unsound investment schemes. In 2004, he agreed to pay a $1 million settlement.
The king grew increasingly authoritarian and has curtailed press freedom. In 2005, 3,000 civil servants went on strike, demanding better pay. Throughout 2005, discontent with economic and social inequities intensified throughout the kingdom. As a result, Prince 'UlukalalaLavaka Ata resigned as prime minister in Feb. 2006. The following month pro-democracy leader FeletiSevele became the first elected commoner to serve as the country's prime minister. In Aug. 2006, the king died and was replaced by his son, George Tupou V.
In a 14–12 vote, Tu'ivakano was elected prime minister over 'AkilisiPohiva and was sworn in on Dec. 22, 2010.
On March 18, 2012, King George Tupou V died. After his death, his younger brother, ʻAhoʻeituʻUnuakiʻotongaTukuʻahoTupou VI, became King of Tonga as Tupou VI. –infoplease.com
How did the manor system work? What technologies were used?
Do you think that the manor system was an effective economic system? Why or why not?
Would you describe the Tongan government as feudal? Their economy as manorialism? Should it change?