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Introduction to Sustainable Development : the International Process and Main Actors Jacqueline Aloisi de Larderel Former UNEP Assistant Executive Director Budapest October 12, 2004. MAIN POINTS PRESENTED. Why do we need sustainable development?

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Introduction to sustainable development the international process and main actors

Introduction to Sustainable Development :

the International Process and Main Actors

Jacqueline Aloisi de Larderel

Former UNEP Assistant Executive Director

Budapest

October 12, 2004


Main points presented

MAIN POINTS PRESENTED

  • Why do we need sustainable development?

  • How did the concept and responses developed?

  • Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?


A rapidly changing world

Why do we need sustainable development?

A RAPIDLY CHANGING WORLD

  • globalization, with increasingly faster communications

  • growing population

  • growing consumption and production worldwide

  • more inequities between and within countries

  • environmental impacts

  • social impacts

  • tensions

Resulting in


Environmental impacts

Why do we need sustainable development?

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

  • emission of greenhouses gases, air pollution

  • water scarcity and water pollution

  • loss of biodiversity (fisheries, forests…)

  • soil degradation

  • wide contamination by toxic chemicals


Social issues

Why do we need sustainable development?

SOCIAL ISSUES

  • 2,8 billon people live on less than 2 dollars per day

  • 1/3 of world population does not have access to energy

  • 20% of world population depends on water supply not meeting WHO standards

  • 60% of world poorest population live in ecologically vulnerable areas


Introduction to sustainable development the international process and main actors

1.20

industrial output

population

1.00

resources

0.80

0.60

food

0.40

0.20

pollution

0.00

1900

2000

2100

A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE ?

Based on World3 model and figure 8.1 of "Beyond the Limits", D.H. Meadows, D. L. Meadows, and J. Randers 1992; Chelsea Green Publishing, White River Junction VT.


Sustainable development a long term issue

Why do we need sustainable development?

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT : A LONG TERM ISSUE

Political leaders term of office

Corporate investment payback period

Life of an electricity generating plant

Life of a child born today

Influence of CO2 on climate

1900

2002

2050

2100


Sustainable development a long term issue1

Why do we need sustainable development?

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT : A LONG TERM ISSUE

If we go on with current production and consumption patterns,

Two planets needed by 2050

2002

2100

1900

2050

Based on "Beyond the Limits", D.H. Meadows, D. L. Meadows, and J. Randers 1992; Chelsea Green Publishing, White River Junction VT.


Our footprints

Why do we need sustainable development?

OUR FOOTPRINTS

* Expressed in Global hectares per capita


The 3 pillars of sustainable development

Why do we need sustainable development?

THE 3 PILLARS OF Sustainable Development:

Economic

(financial capital)

Environmental

(natural capital)

Social

(human capital)


We all live in a paradox

Why do we need sustainable development?

We all live in a paradox :

I want to have a fashion car , to use the latest electronic equipment and the fashionable gadgets…

We would like to stop poverty , violence, pollution…

HENCE THE NEED TO PROPOSE WORKABLE SOLUTIONS


Main points presented1

MAIN POINTS PRESENTED

  • Why do we need sustainable development?

  • How did the concept and responses developed?

  • Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?


An historical perspective the international work 1

How did the concept and responses developed?

AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE :THE INTERNATIONAL WORK (1)

  • 1970: the first „Earth Day” on the 22. April, 1970.

  • 1970: United Nations (UN) start „The man and the biosphere”

  • 1972: The Club of Rome (est. 1968) „Limits of growth” book

  • 1972: UN Conference on man and the environment, Stockholm

    • adoption of a declaration (26

    • creation of UNEP (UN Environment Programme)

  • 1975: Helsinki: The Conf. Security and Co-operation inEurope

  • 1979: Geneva: I. Europeen Conf. on Environmental Protection

    • Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) (->1983)


An historical perspective the international work 2

How did the concept and responses developed?

AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE :THE INTERNATIONAL WORK (2)

  • 1985: Helsinki: acception of limits on SO2 emission

  • 1985: Vienna: Adoption of the Vienna convention on the protection of the ozone layer

  • 1987: Publication of the Brundtland report “our common future”

    • First definition of Sustainable Development: development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

  • 1987: Adoption of the Montreal Protocol on the Ozone Layer

  • 1988: Sofia Convention on limiting NOX (nitrogen-oxide, NO, NO2, N2O) emission

  • 1989 : Basel Convention on hazardous waste


An historical perspective the international work 3

How did the concept and responses developed?

AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE :THE INTERNATIONAL WORK (3)

  • 1992: RIO DE JANEIRO: UN Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED)(Earth Summit), Rio de Janeiro.

  • Participants: UN 172/178, (761 NGO officer, ~8000 NGO officer)

  • Adoption of:

    • The conventions on climate change and biodiversity

    • The forestry principles

    • „27 Rio Principles” of sustainable development (art 25 states “peace, development and environment protection are interdependent and cannot be seen in isolation of each other”)

    • Agenda 21 (=tasks for the 21st century)

    • Creation of the CSD (Commission of Sustainable Development)

  • 1992: Establishment of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)

  • 1997: Kyoto: Convention on emissions of greenhouse gases

  • (CO2, CH4,N2O, CFC –freon, water vapor, trop. ozone)

  • e.g. -20% for CO2 in ten years 1990->2000

  • Kyoto: non-ratified by USA, Russia, China (min. 55% needed!)

  • -> 2004 finally Russia has ratified, so >55% of the world emission is in

  • 2005. 02.16. Kyoto Convention came into force (without USA!)


An historical perspective the international work 4

How did the concept and responses developed?

AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE :THE INTERNATIONAL WORK (4)

  • 1997 Kyoto: developed countries decided that 0.7% of their GDP -> to the non-developed countries to help them introducing environmental protection technologies

  • 2000: Launch of the UN Global Compact by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan

  • 2001: Convention on POP’s (Air Quality, International efforts to address persistent organic pollutants

  • 5 years after Kyoto: results of Agenda 21 are poor ->

  • 2002: Johannesburg: World Summit on SustainableDevelopment (WSSD).Adoption of:

    • a „declaration of sustainable development”

    • a „Plan of implementation”,with targets and time tables, dealing with poverty, water and sanitation, sustainable production and consumption, energy, chemicals, management of the resource base…

    • more than 220 partnerships between key actors to implement various projects

    • -50% decrease in number of people living without healthy drinking water and under daily income of 1 US $

    • environmental politics together with social politics


An historical perspective the international work 5

How did the concept and responses developed?

AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE :THE INTERNATIONAL WORK (5)

  • major activity: monitoring and enforce Kyoto Convention

  • 2003: At Commission of Sustainable Development (CSD), definition of the process to monitor implementation of the WSSD commitments

  • 2004 finally Russia has ratified Kyoto Convention, so >55% of the world emission is in the ratifying countries

  • 2005.02.16. Kyoto Convention came into force (without USA)


From environmental protection to sustainable development

How did the concept and responses developed?

FROM ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION…………..TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

  • Dilution

  • Treatment

  • Recycling

  • Cleaner and safer production :

    • Production processes

    • Products

  • Life cycle economy

  • Development of environmental management tools such as ISO 14000 series


Increasing demand coming from

How did the concept and responses developed?

INCREASING DEMAND COMING FROM :

  • Consumers

  • Employees

  • Investors, finance sector

  • General Public


Main points presented2

MAIN POINTS PRESENTED

  • Why do we need sustainable development?

  • How did the concept and responses developed?

  • Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?


Main actors 1 governments

Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?

MAIN ACTORS : 1- GOVERNMENTS

  • Legislation and regulation (adoption and enforcement)

  • Economic incentives (changes in existing subsidy systems, taxes, polluter payer fees…)

  • Integration of SD consideration in all government activities (including for example energy, transport, export credit agencies, procurement…)

  • Institution /capacity building

  • Education

  • Demonstration by example


Main actors 2 local authorities

Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?

MAIN ACTORS : 2- LOCAL AUTHORITIES

  • Developing local plans of action

  • Environmentally sound management of local services ( transport, public buildings, waste , water…)

  • Public awareness raising


Main actors 3 industry and business

Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?

MAIN ACTORS : 3– INDUSTRY AND BUSINESS

  • Developing Corporate Social and Environmental Responsibility (CSR)

  • Develop and implement an environmental and sustainability policy, involving CEOandmembers of the board

  • Assess efficiency and pollution reduction potentials, and set quantifiable targets and goals for environmental performance

  • Abide by legislation and regulations

  • Implement codes of conduct and environmental management tools

  • Innovate in cleaner and safer processes and products


Main actors 3 industry and business 2

Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?

MAIN ACTORS : 3– INDUSTRY AND BUSINESS (2)

  • Train staff

  • Develop dialogue with neighbours and NGOs

  • Develop partnerships

  • Monitor environmental and sustainability performance against a set of defined criteria

  • Report publicly annually (using the Global Report Initiative Framework GRI)


Main actors 4 non governmental organizations ngos

Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?

MAIN ACTORS : 4- NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs)

  • Contribute to constructive dialogue

  • Contribute to partnerships

  • Raise awareness of the public on sustainability issues


Main actors 5 international governmental organizations 1

Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?

MAIN ACTORS : 5- INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (1)

  • Provide a platform for dialogue and exchange of experiences (between governments, and also with industry and NGOs)

  • Facilitate the adoption of international environmental regulations and standards

  • Facilitate the adoption of voluntary codes

  • Promote technology transfer

  • Assist in capacity building in developing countries

  • Support sustainable development projects in developing countries

  • Operate at subregional, regional or global level


Main actors 6 international governmental organizations 2

Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?

MAIN ACTORS : 6- INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (2)

  • EU

  • OECD

  • UN system:

    • UNEP (UN Environment Programme)

    • UNDP (UN Development Programme)

    • UNIDO (UN Industrial Development Organization)

    • ILO (UN’s International Labour Organization - The UN specialized agency which seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights

    • WHO (World Health Organization)

    • UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)

    • Global Compact (2000

    • DESA(secretariat of CSD)

    • Regional Economic Commissions

  • International Finance Institutions

    • World Bank,

    • IMF

    • Development banks (BERD, ADB, World Bank…)

  • WTO ( World Trade Organization )


Main actors 6 international governmental organizations 3

Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?

MAIN ACTORS : 6- INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (3)

  • What is the UN Global Compact?

  • The Global Compact is a framework for businesses that are committed to aligning their operations and strategies withten universally accepted principles in the areas of:

  • Human rights:

  • to support human rights activities at workplace,

  • Do not contribute to any activity that diminish human rights

  • Labour:

  • 3. right of assembly

  • 4. no hard labor / no penal servitude,

  • against child work,

  • no discriminative movements on application / employment

  • Environment:

  • theory of precaution,

  • starting env. prot. activity,

  • introducing env. ptor. technologiyes

  • Anti-corruption:

  • no corruption of any level


Main actors 6 international governmental organizations 4

Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?

MAIN ACTORS : 6- INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (4)

  • UN Global Compact

  • Mainstream the ten principles in business activities around the world

  • Catalyse actions in support of broader UN goals, such as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

  • To achieve these objectives, the Global Compact offers facilitation and engagement through several mechanisms: Policy Dialogues, Learning, Country/Regional Networks, and Partnership Projects.

  • The Global Compact is not a regulatory instrument – it does not “police”, enforce or measure the behavior or actions of companies. Rather, the Global Compact relies on public accountability, transparency and the enlightened self-interest of companies, labour and civil society to initiate and share substantive action in pursuing the principles upon which the Global Compact is based.

  • The Global Compact is a network. At its core are the Global Compact Office and six UN agencies:

  • Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

  • United Nations Environment Programme UNEP

  • International Labour Organization ILO

  • United Nations Development Programme UNDP

  • United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIDO

  • United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime UNODC


Main actors 6 international governmental organizations 41

Who are the main Actors, and what are their role?

MAIN ACTORS : 6- INTERNATIONAL GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (4)

  • UN Global Compact (cont.)

  • The Global Compact involves all the relevant social actors:

  • governments, who defined the principles on which the initiative is based;

  • companies, whose actions it seeks to influence;

  • labour, in whose hands the concrete process of global production takes place;

  • civil society organizations, representing the wider community of stakeholders;

  • and The United Nations, the world's only truly global political forum, as an authoritative convener and facilitator.


No other choice than sustainability

CONCLUSION

NO OTHER CHOICE THAN SUSTAINABILITY

  • “We know the problems.

  • We know the solutions.

  • Together, as one world,

  • we must find the will to deliver them”

  • Tony Blair, Prime Minister, at WSSD

  • 2002


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