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History of oceanographic study

History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

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History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

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History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

  • ~ 3000 B.C. to 600 A.D.

  • Polynesians - central Pacific - one of four cultures inhabiting some of the 10000 islands in the Pacific from New Zealand to Hawaii, from Fiji to Easter Island.

  • 700 B.C.

  • Greeks, traveling routinely to as far north as Iceland, were among the first mariners to use stars to determine latitude.

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  • 500 B.C.

  • Pamenides

  • 400 B.C.

  • Pythaes

  • 250 B.C.

  • Erathosthenes

History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

Erathosthenes

History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

  • 800 -1200 :Vikings

  • 1400's : Latin Exploration

  • mainly Portuguese ships- Sailed around Africa to reach the East Indies

  • 1492 :Columbus

  • first European to reach the Caribbean

  • 1519 - 1522:Ferdinando Magellan

  • circumnavigates the world. Takes nearly

  • 3 years for his crew to complete the mission.

History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

Magellan

History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

  • 1768 :James Cook- (Endeavour)

  • - probably the first true ocean going marine scientist, explored and charted much of the Pacific.

  • - Endeavour, Resolution, Adventure, and Discovery also took samples of ocean floor sediments, plants, and animals

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History of oceanographic study

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  • 1706-1790 : Benjamin Franklin

  • Gulf Stream

History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

Gulf stream Benjamin Franklin

History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

(3)

  • 1831 - 1836 : Beagle

  • - crew included a young scientist - Charles Darwin

  • - Goal of the expedition was to complete a survey of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, South America.

  • - studies conducted by Darwin inspired his theory on evolution and the publication of Origin of Species

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  • 1815 -1854 : Edward Forbes

  • - Aegean

  • - Azoic Zone 300 fathoms

  • (540 m)

  • -

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  • 1872-1876 :ChallengerExpedition

  • Four year expedition sponsored by the Royal Society of London (inspired by Darwin's work)

  • - First Devoted Scientific Ocean Expedition

  • - study Everything about the Sea

  • - 492 deep soundings

  • - 155 open water trawls

  • -Recorded water temperatures, salinity, and currents

  • - Collected sediment samples from the ocean bottom

History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

HMS Challenger

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  • Primary scientific achievements of Challenger Expedition

  • 1. Identified more than 4,717 new species of marine life

  • 2. found that life existed in the deep ocean

  • (Forbes was proved resoundingly wrong

  • 3. Mapped the ocean floor by measuring water depth.

  • Found the deepest depth Challenger deep 11,022 km.

  • 4. 23 years for writing 50-volume reports

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  • 1861-1930 : Fridtjof Nansen

  • -

  • - Fram

  • Oslo

  • - 35 300

  • - Norway

  • 1896

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Nansen

- (Arctic sea)

- Arctic sea (>3,000 m)

- , ,

- bloom plankton

-

Nansen bottle

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History of oceanographic study

Nansen bottle

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  • 1925 : Meteor Expedition

2 major achievements:

1.mapped the depth and contours

of the seafloor, using a new instrument

known as Echo Sounder

2. By measuring temperature and salinity, scientists were

able to map the vertical distribution of water masses,

finding that the water column consisted of several

physically and chemically distinct layered water masses.

History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

20 (2)

  • 1868-1893 : Glomar Challenger

- In 1968 - a consortium of oceanographic institutions and

the National Science Foundation, commission a drilling ship

which they name the Challenger.

- The main objective : test a radical new theory of

Plate tectonics.

- The ship was capable of drilling the ocean floor, and

recover complete cores from water depths as great as

6000 m .

- Other important contributions to understanding Ocean

History (paleoclimates), evolution

History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

Glomar Challenger

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History of oceanographic study

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  • Sextant

History of Oceanographic Study


History of oceanographic study

? (2)

  • Chronometer

History of Oceanographic Study


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