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Ancient Greece. An introduction. 上周提問回應. 平等,就是不輕視任何人,儘管每個人都不一樣。 我讀 《 傳道書 》 ,更相信人要確立自己的志向,越有知識、有智慧、有能力的人,越容易迷失在自己擁有的事物當中,不論是權力、名、利等。有些人因為困頓跌倒,但更多人迷失在安逸當中。. POUSSIN, Nicolas (1594-1665) "The Judgment of Solomon". Preparation for the mid-term oral presentation. 1.   Date: April 29 (Week 10)

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Ancient greece

Ancient Greece

An introduction


Ancient greece

上周提問回應

平等,就是不輕視任何人,儘管每個人都不一樣。

我讀《傳道書》,更相信人要確立自己的志向,越有知識、有智慧、有能力的人,越容易迷失在自己擁有的事物當中,不論是權力、名、利等。有些人因為困頓跌倒,但更多人迷失在安逸當中。


Poussin nicolas 1594 1665 the judgment of solomon

POUSSIN, Nicolas (1594-1665)"The Judgment of Solomon"


Preparation for the mid term oral presentation

Preparation for the mid-term oral presentation

  • 1.  Date: April 29 (Week 10)

  • 2.   time: 12-15 minutes

  • 3.    A mini-drama (recorded in DVD)

  • 4.    In English or in Chinese

  • 5.    Topics: Old Testament, Moses, David, Solomon, Greek Mythology, Iliad…

  • 6.    All students must have a role (and some lines) in the performance.

  • 7.    The sequence will be decided on the spot.

  • 8. Be cautioned: all students have to come to class to review the oral reports (as a form of mid-term exam)


Ancient greece

期中小組口頭報告

1. 組別:依照分好的十組進行2. 長度:每一組拍攝12-15分鐘的影片,影片燒成DVD或是上傳到Youtube(但燒DVD比較保險以免當天網路出問題)3. 影片內容:舊約與荷馬史詩等等,可以從之前小組討論題目再延伸發展成一短劇或辯論等等形式。4. 時間:4/29日5. 注意事項:當天請大家都要出席


Ancient greece

今天課程安排

1. 影片欣賞(25分鐘)

2. 古希臘簡介 (50分鐘)

3. 希臘眾神 (25分鐘)

4. 小組討論(25分鐘)

5. 小組討論結果分享(25分鐘)

2011--Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

畢達哥拉斯

發明畢氏定理,為數學、音樂之父。

是最早的實驗科學家之一。

由月相圖(月的盈虧)推測月球是球狀的,進一步地推測地球與其他星體也是球狀的。環繞著它的地球,太陽、月球、五大行星及恆星。 

Alice Y. Chang


Pythagoras 570 500bc

Pythagoras (570-500BC)

not only pioneered the study of mathematics in the western world, but was also a reputed miracle worker.

His famous theorem for calculating the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle is well known.

Less well known is his mystical theory of the transmigration of souls.

Alice Y. Chang


Hippocrates 460 390bc

Hippocrates (460-390BC)

physician and medical writer, is the father of modern medicine.

He established a renowned school of medicine on the island of Cos, where students learned to diagnose illness through observation rather than theory.

It was from this school that the first version of the Hippocratic oath derived.

Alice Y. Chang


Archimedes 287 211bc

Archimedes (287-211BC)

is most famous for running through the streets shouting “Eureka!” when he discovered the principle of specific gravity while sitting in his bath.

But we can also credit him with the invention of the Archimedean screw—a device still used to draw water upwards—and many important theories of geometry.

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

The Prehistoric PeriodsPaleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic Periods

The Bronze Age  : 3000 - 1100 B.C.The Early Iron Age : 1100 - 900 B.C.The Geometric Period  : 900-700 B.C.The Archaic Period : 700-480 B.C.The Classical Period : 480-323 B.C.The Hellenistic Period : 323- 31 B.C.The Roman Period in Greece: 31 B.C. - A.D. 323The Byzantine Period in Greece  : A.D. 323 - 1453

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

Alice Y. Chang


800 b c to a d 400

800 B.C. to A.D. 400

The area is the Mediterranean basin, and the period the twelve hundred years from, roughly, 800 B.C. to A.D. 400.

In this place and time the intellectual and religious foundations of the modern Western outlook were laid.

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

Alice Y. Chang


Languages hebrew greek and latin

languages–Hebrew, Greek, and Latin

  • The literature of that world, which, whether or not we are acquainted with it, still underlies many of our institutions, attitudes, and thought, was written in three languages–Hebrew, Greek, and Latin.

  • The peoples who spoke these languages created their civilizations independently in place and time, but the development of the Mediterranean area into one economic and political unit brought them into contact with one another and produced a fusion of their typical attitudes that formed the basis of later European thought.

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

Alice Y. Chang


Minoan civilization

Minoan civilization 米諾文明

The first apex of the Greek civilization


Minoan civilization1

Minoan civilization

The second millennium B.C. saw a brilliant culture, called Minoan after the mythical king Minos, flourishing on the large island of Grete, and the citadel of Mycenae and the palace at Pylos show that mainland Greece, in that same period, had centers of wealth and power unsuspected before the excavators discovered the gold masks of the buried kings and clay tablets covered with strange signs.

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

"Medallion Pithoi", or storage jars, at the Knossos palace.

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

A Kamare style vase, 2100-1700 BCE

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

Marine style, fragment from an oil jug, Aigina, 15th century BC,

Alice Y. Chang


Map of minoan crete

Map of Minoan Crete

Alice Y. Chang


Crete

Crete

Crete is a mountainous island with natural harbors.

There are signs of earthquake damage at many Minoan sites and clear signs of both uplifting of land and submersion of coastal sites due to tectonic processes all along the coasts.

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

Alice Y. Chang


Dolphin fresco

Dolphin fresco

A detail of the restored Dolphin fresco on the wall of the Queen’s Room in the Minoan palace at Knossos.

The rosette pattern below the dolphins is typically Minoan and the whole fresco probably dates from the last phase of the New palace, around 1450-1400 BCE.

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

(Left) Liliumcandidum, Samos, 1995. (Right) Minoan lily fresco, Amnisos (c. 1600 BC, Museum Heraklion, Crete (Kandeler).

http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/content/60/7/1893.full


Homer odyssey xix

Homer, Odyssey xix.

Homer recorded a tradition that Crete had 90 cities.

To judge from the palace sites the island was probably divided into at least eight political units during the height of the Minoan period.

The north is thought to have been governed from Knossos, the south from Phaistos, the central eastern part from Malia, and the eastern tip from Kato Zakros and the west from Chania. Smaller palaces have been found in other places.

Alice Y. Chang


The minoan language

The Minoan Language


2 the mycenaean civilization

2 The Mycenaean Civilization

邁錫尼文明

The second apex


Linear a linear b

Linear A Linear B

The decipherment of these signs (published in 1953) revealed that the language of these Myceneans was an early form of Greek.

It must have been the memory of these rich kingdoms that inspired Homer’s vision of “Mycenae rich in gold” and the splendid armed hosts that assembled for the attack on Troy.

Alice Y. Chang


The deciphered linear b linear b syllabary

The deciphered Linear B Linear B Syllabary


Linear b logograms

Linear B Logograms


Chariot race

Chariot Race


Map of the argolid during the bronze age

Map of the Argolid during the Bronze Age


From mycenaean wealth to the dark age

From Mycenaean wealth to the Dark Age

  • With them disappeared not only the arts and skills that had created Mycenaean wealth but even the system of writing.

  • For the next few hundred years the Greeks were illiterate and so no written evidence survives for what, in view of our ignorance about so many aspects of it, we call the Dark Age of Greece.

Alice Y. Chang


Review the hebrew conception of god

Review:The Hebrew conception of God

emphasizes those aspects of the universe that imply a harmonious order.

The elements of disorder in the universe are, in the story of Creation, blamed on humankind, and in all Hebrew literature the evidences of disorder are something the writer tries to reconcile with an a priori assumption of an all-powerful, just God; no one tampers with the fundamental datum.

Alice Y. Chang


The olympian gods natural forces

The Olympian gods = natural forces

The Olympian gods, like the natural forces of sea and sky, follow their own will even to the extreme of conflict with each other, and always with a sublime disregard for the human beings who may be affected by the results of their actions.

It is true that they are all subjects of a single more powerful god, Zeus.

Alice Y. Chang


Gods the blind forces of the universe

Gods= the blind forces of the universe

Such gods as these, representing as they do the blind forces of the universe that humans cannot control, are not always thought of as connected with morality.

Morality is a human creation, and though the gods may approve of it, they are not bound by it.

Alice Y. Chang


The trojan war and mycenaean age

the Trojan War and Mycenaean Age

  • The stories told in the Homeric poems are set in the age of the Trojan War, which archeologists (those, that is, who believe that it happened at all) date to the twelfth century B.C.

  • Though the poems do preserve some faded memories of the Mycenaean Age, as we have them they probably are the creation of later centuries, the tenth to the eighth B.C., the so-called Dark Age that succeeded the collapse (or destruction) of Mycenaean civilization.

Alice Y. Chang


3 the classical period

3 The Classical Period

The Third Apex


The city states of greece

THE CITY-STATES OF GREECE

The geography of Greece – a land of mountain barriers and scattered islands – encouraged this fragmentation.

Alice Y. Chang


Polis common hellenic heritage

Polis common Hellenic heritage

The Greek cities never lost sight of their common Hellenic heritage, but it was not enough to unite them except in the face of unmistakable and overwhelming danger, and even then only partially and for a short time.

They differed from each other in custom, political constitution, and even dialect: their relations with each other were those of rivals and fierce competitors.

Alice Y. Chang


Phoenician system of writing

Phoenician system of writing

It was in the cities founded on the Asian coast that the Greeks adapted to their own language the Phoenician system of writing, adding signs for the vowels to create their alphabet, the forerunner of the Roman alphabet and of our own.

Alice Y. Chang


Athens and sparta

ATHENS AND SPARTA

  • By the beginning of the fifth century B.C. the two most prominent city-states were Athens and Sparta.

  • These two cities led the combined Greek resistance to the Persian invasion of Europe in the years 490 to 479 B.C.

  • The defeat of the solid Persian power by the divided and insignificant Greek cities surprised the world and inspired in Greece, and particularly in Athens, a confidence that knew no bounds.

Alice Y. Chang


Greek mythology the homeric hymns and theogony

Greek Mythology , the Homeric Hymns,and Theogony

Alice Y. Chang


Greek pantheon

Greek pantheon

  • According to Classical-era mythology, after the overthrow of the Titans, the new pantheon of gods and goddesses was confirmed. Among the principal Greek gods were the Olympians, residing atop Mount Olympus under the eye of Zeus.

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

Alice Y. Chang


Olympian gods

Olympian Gods

Zeus, Poseidon, Hades,

Hestia, Hera, Ares, Athena, Apollo,

Aphrodite, Hermes, Artemis, Hephaestus

希臘神話衆神

http://memo.cgu.edu.tw/yu-yen/2008-greek-mythology1.pdf

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

Alice Y. Chang


Greek god roman equivalent

Greek god (Roman equivalent)  

  • Zeus (Jupiter)/ Hera (Juno) /

  • Demeter (Ceres) / Artemis (Diana)/

  • Aphrodite (Venus)/  Eros (Cupid)/

  • Hermes (Mercury) / Hephaistos (Vulcan) /

  • Poseidon (Neptune) / Apollo (Apollo) /

  • Ares (Mars) / Athena (Minerva) /

  • Hestia (Vesta) / Dionysus (Bacchus)/

  • Pan (Faunus)/ Heracles (Hercules) /

  • Asclepius (Aesculapius) /

  • Hades (Pluto) / Persephone (Proserpine)

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

Temple of Zeus (600 BCE), the largest Greek pantheon outside of Athens

Alice Y. Chang


Delphi temple of apollo

Delphi, Temple of Apollo

Alice Y. Chang


Planet names

Planet Names 行星與眾神

Mercury (Hermes) 水

Venus (Aphrodite) 金

Earth (Gaia) 地

Jupiter (Zeus) 木

Mars (Ares) 火

Saturn (Cronus)土

Uranus天王星

Neptune (Poseidon) 海王星

Pluto (Hades) 冥王星


Review minoan and mycenaean

Review: Minoan and Mycenaean


Review from dark age to archaic period

Review: From Dark Age to Archaic Period


Prometheus

普羅米修斯(Prometheus)

  • 普羅米修斯是一個為了人類而從奧林帕斯山山上偷走火的泰坦巨人,因而遭到宙斯給予他極為可怕的懲罰。他是艾爾佩提斯的兒子;亞特拉斯和艾皮米修斯的兄弟。 "普羅米修斯(Prometheus)"在希臘語中是 "遠見(foresight)"的意思。

  • 普羅米修士與智慧女神雅典娜共同創造了人類,並教會了人類很多知識。

Alice Y. Chang


The sculptor of this roman sarcophagus has portrayed prometheus as a workman creating mini humans

The sculptor of this Roman sarcophagus has portrayed Prometheus as a workman creating mini-humans.

Alice Y. Chang


Prometheus and the eagle

Prometheus and the eagle

  • 當時Zeus禁止人類用火,他看到人類生活的困苦,幫人類從奧林匹斯偷取了火,因此觸怒宙斯。

  • 宙斯將他鎖在高加索山的懸崖上,每天派一隻鷹去吃他的肝,又讓他的肝每天重新長上,使他日日承受被惡鷹啄食肝臟的痛苦。然而普羅米修士始終堅毅不屈。幾千年後,Heracles 為尋找金蘋果來到懸崖邊,把惡鷹射死,並讓半人半馬的肯陶洛斯族的Chiron來代替,解救了普羅米修士。

  • 但他必須永遠戴一隻鐵環,環上鑲上一塊高加索山上的石子,以便宙斯可以自豪地宣稱他的仇敵仍然被鎖在高加索山的懸崖上。

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

PROMETHEUS & THE EAGLE

Alice Y. Chang


Ancient greece

美學系列/肉身故事與神話世界(上)【聯合報╱蔣勳】

普羅米修斯身上那一塊永遠解不開的石頭,常讓我想到《紅樓夢》一開始丟棄在大荒山、無稽崖、青埂峰下的那一塊石頭……

http://udn.com/NEWS/READING/X5/8565052.shtml#ixzz2wqBesvSQ


Ancient greece

鎖在岩石上的普羅米修斯。蔣勳提供


Ancient greece

古希臘文學作品

史詩:Iliad and Odyssey

抒情詩:Sappo, Pindar

希臘悲劇

希臘喜劇

史書:Herodotus, Thucydides

其他:Aesop’s Fables, Hippocratic Corpus


620 and 560 bce

《伊索寓言》 620 and 560 BCE

《伊索寓言》是源自古希臘的一系列寓言,相傳由伊索創作,再由後人集結成書。也有人認為並無伊索其人,只是古人假託其名將一些民間故事結集成書。《伊索寓言》膾炙人口,對歐洲的寓言文學影響很大,拉封丹著名的《寓言詩》即以《伊索寓言》為主要素材

BC, AD

BCE, CE (Common Era)


The fox and the grapes

The fox and the grapes

http://www.gutenberg.org/files/11339/11339-h/11339-h.htm#THE_FOX_AND_THE_GRAPES


Ancient greece

小組討論

1. 今天的影片中,你學到最多的是甚麼? 和倫理與美學的素養有甚麼關聯?

2. 期中報告主題與腳色分配

Homework: Iliad Book One


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