Chapter 13. Measuring and Evaluating Financial Performance. PowerPoint Authors: Brandy Mackintosh Lindsay Heiser. Learning Objective 13-1. Describe the purpose and uses of horizontal, vertical, and ratio analyses. Horizontal, Vertical, and Ratio Analyses.
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Measuring and Evaluating
Describe the purpose and uses of horizontal, vertical, and ratio analyses.
Horizontal (trend) analyses are conducted to help financial statement users recognize important financial changes that unfold over time.
Gross Profit in 2012
Gross Profit in 2013
Δ in Gross Profit $ and/or % from 2012
Vertical analyses focus on important relationships between items on the same financial statement.
Cost of Goods Sold
$ 50,000 25%
Net Sales Revenue
Average Net Receivables
Ratio analyses are conducted to understand relationships among various items reported in one or more of the financial statements.
It is essential to understand that no analysis is complete unless it leads to an interpretation that helps financial statement users understand and evaluate a company’s financial results
Use horizontal (trend) analysis to recognize financial changes that unfold over time.
Trend analyses are usually calculated in terms of year-to-year dollar and percentage changes.
Let’s look at an example
$48,815 – $47,220
Calculate the change in dollars for Net Sales Revenue between 2010 and 2009.
Now let’s look at the remainder of the trend analysis of the Income Statement.
Can you calculate the dollar and percentage change for Cost of Sales?
Now let’s calculate the percentage change in Net Sales Revenue between 2009 and 2008.
Use vertical (common size) analysis to understand important relationships within financial statements.
Vertical, or common size, analysis focuses on important relationships within financial statements.
Sales = 100%
Total Assets = 100%
Cost of Sales
Net Sales Revenue
Calculate financial ratios to assess profitability, liquidity, and solvency.
Ratio analysis compares the amounts for one or more line items to the amounts for other line items in the same year.
Ratios are classified into three categories . . .
examine a company’s
ability to generate income.
examine a company’sability to payinterest and repaydebt when due.
help us determine if acompany has sufficientcurrent assets to repayliabilities when due.
Interpret the results of financial analyses.
Cost of sales and operating expenses are the most important determinants of the company’s profitability.
The increase in Net Income in fiscal 2010 is explained by the increase in Net Sales Revenue and the decreases in Cost of Sales and Operating Expenses as a percentage of sales.
Lowe’s has experienced a small decrease in its percentage of Cost of Sales in relation to Sales Revenue from fiscal 2009 to 2010. Decreasing cost of sales means higher Gross Profit.
Lowe’s did a better job of controlling its Operating Expenses between 2009 and 2010.
Net Profit Margin – The slowly improving economy helped boost Lowe’s profits in 2010 as shown by the increase in Net Profit Margin.
Gross Profit Percentage – Lowe’s gross profit percentage indicates how much profit was made on each dollar of sales after deducting the Cost of Goods Sold.
Asset Turnover Ratio – indicates the amount of sales revenue generated for each dollar invested in assets during the period.
Fixed Asset Turnover – indicates how much revenue the company generates in sales for each dollar invested in fixed assets,
Home Depot 2010 fixed asset turnover ratio was 2.69
Return on Equity (ROE) – Compares the amount of net income to average stockholders’ equity. ROE reports the net amount earned
during the period as a percentage of each dollar contributed by stockholders and retained in the business.
Earnings Per Share (EPS) – Shows the amount of earnings generated for each share of outstanding common stock.
Price /Earnings (P/E) Ratio – Shows the relationship between EPS and the market price of one share of the company’s stock.
Let’s change our attention to an examination of liquidity ratios. The analyses in this section focus on the company’s ability to survive in the short term, by converting assets to cash that can be used to pay current liabilities as they come due.
Net Sales Revenue
Average Net Receivables
Receivable Turnover Ratio – Most retail home improvement companies have low levels of accounts receivable relative to sales revenue because they collect the majority of their sales immediately in cash.
Inventory Turnover Ratio – The inventory turnover ratio indicates how frequently inventory is bought and sold. The “days to sell” indicates the average number of days needed to sell each purchase of inventory.
Home Depot sells its inventory in an average of 85 days in 2010.
Current Ratio – The current ratio measures the company’s ability to pay its current liabilities
Quick Ratio – The quick ratio is a much more stringent test of short-term liquidity than is the current ratio. Lowe’s quick ratio increased slightly in 2010, just as its current ratio did.
Referred to as “quick assets.”
Let’s examine some Solvency Ratios
Solvency ratios focus on a company’s ability to survive over the long term, that is, its ability to repay debt at maturity and pay interest prior to that time.
Debt to Assets Ratio – indicates the proportion of total assets that creditors finance.
In 2010, The Home Depot had a debt-to-assets ratio of 53 percent.
Times Interest Earned – indicates how many times the company’s interest expense was covered by its operating results.
Describe how analyses depend on key accounting decisions and concepts.
Difference in Strategies,e.g. type of financing.
Difference in Operations,e.g. quality of items sold.
Difference in Accounting Methods, e.g. FIFO vs. LIFO.
Companies may elect to use any acceptable generally accepted accounting principle (GAAP) as long as they apply the principle consistently.
Factors that commonly contribute to going-concern problems are listed below.
Nonrecurring and Other Special Items
Very few events qualify as extraordinary items.
Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Methods
Direct adjustment to Retained Earnings rather than income reporting.
For discontinued component two items are reported:
Operating income prior to the date of disposal.
Gain or loss on sale or disposal of net assets.
Comprehensive Income includes:
Gains or losses from certain foreign currency exchange rate changes.
Gains or losses resulting from the change in value of certain types of investments.
Excludedfrom net income because they are likely to disappear before they are ever realized.
Reviewing and Contrasting IFRS and GAAP
At a basic level both IFRS and GAAP are concerned with accounting rules that describe
when an item should be recognized in the accounting system,
how that item should be classified (asset , liability, equity, expense, or revenue), and
the amount at which each item should be measured.
Report fixed assets at fair value.
M13-1, M13-2, M13-6, E13-1, E13-3, E13-4, E13-10, E13-13
Using the following income statements, perform the calculations needed for horizontal analyses. Round percentages to one decimal place.
($100,000 – $75,000)$75,000
× 100 = 33.3%
Refer to M13-1 . Perform the calculations needed for vertical analyses. Round percentages to one decimal place.
× 100 = 21.0%
M13-6 Inferring Financial Information Using Gross Profit Percentage and Year-over-Year Comparisons
A consumer products company reported a 25 percent increase in sales from 2012 to 2013. Sales in 2012 were $200,000. In 2013, the company reported Cost of Goods Sold in the amount of $150,000. What was the gross profit percentage in 2013? Round to one decimal place.
Sales ($200,000 x 1.25) $250,000 100.0%
Cost of Goods Sold (given) (150,000) -60.0%
Gross Profit $100,000 40.0%
× 100 = 40.0%