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Chapter 13. Measuring and Evaluating Financial Performance. PowerPoint Authors: Brandy Mackintosh Lindsay Heiser. Learning Objective 13-1. Describe the purpose and uses of horizontal, vertical, and ratio analyses. Horizontal, Vertical, and Ratio Analyses.

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chapter 13

Chapter 13

Measuring and Evaluating

Financial Performance

PowerPoint Authors:

Brandy Mackintosh

Lindsay Heiser

learning objective 13 1
Learning Objective 13-1

Describe the purpose and uses of horizontal, vertical, and ratio analyses.

horizontal vertical and ratio analyses
Horizontal, Vertical, and Ratio Analyses

Horizontal (trend) analyses are conducted to help financial statement users recognize important financial changes that unfold over time.



Gross Profit in 2012

Gross Profit in 2013

Δ in Gross Profit $ and/or % from 2012

Trend Analysis

Vertical analyses focus on important relationships between items on the same financial statement.





Cost of Goods Sold

Gross Profit

$200,000 100%

150,000 75%

$ 50,000 25%

horizontal vertical and ratio analyses1
Horizontal, Vertical, and Ratio Analyses



Net Sales Revenue

Average Net Receivables

Ratio analyses are conducted to understand relationships among various items reported in one or more of the financial statements.


It is essential to understand that no analysis is complete unless it leads to an interpretation that helps financial statement users understand and evaluate a company’s financial results

learning objective 13 2
Learning Objective 13-2

Use horizontal (trend) analysis to recognize financial changes that unfold over time.

horizontal trend computations
Horizontal (Trend) Computations

Trend analyses are usually calculated in terms of year-to-year dollar and percentage changes.

Let’s look at an example

horizontal trend computations1
Horizontal (Trend) Computations

$48,815 – $47,220


× 100

Calculate the change in dollars for Net Sales Revenue between 2010 and 2009.

Now let’s look at the remainder of the trend analysis of the Income Statement.

Can you calculate the dollar and percentage change for Cost of Sales?

Now let’s calculate the percentage change in Net Sales Revenue between 2009 and 2008.

learning objective 13 3
Learning Objective 13-3

Use vertical (common size) analysis to understand important relationships within financial statements.

vertical common size computations
Vertical (Common Size) Computations

Vertical, or common size, analysis focuses on important relationships within financial statements.

Income Statement

Balance Sheet

Sales = 100%

Total Assets = 100%

Cost of Sales

Net Sales Revenue

× 100

learning objective 13 4
Learning Objective 13-4

Calculate financial ratios to assess profitability, liquidity, and solvency.

ratio computations
Ratio Computations

Ratio analysis compares the amounts for one or more line items to the amounts for other line items in the same year.

Ratios are classified into three categories . . .

Profitability ratios

examine a company’s

ability to generate income.

Solvency ratios

examine a company’sability to payinterest and repaydebt when due.

Liquidity ratios

help us determine if acompany has sufficientcurrent assets to repayliabilities when due.

learning objective 13 5
Learning Objective 13-5

Interpret the results of financial analyses.

interpreting horizontal and vertical analyses

Lowe’s began relying more on debt and less equity financing. Long-term liabilities increased 28.7 percent and stockholders’ equity decreased by 5%.

Lowe’s assets grew only by 2.1% in fiscal 2010.

Interpreting Horizontal and Vertical Analyses
interpreting horizontal and vertical analyses1
Interpreting Horizontal and Vertical Analyses

Cost of sales and operating expenses are the most important determinants of the company’s profitability.

The increase in Net Income in fiscal 2010 is explained by the increase in Net Sales Revenue and the decreases in Cost of Sales and Operating Expenses as a percentage of sales.

interpreting horizontal and vertical analyses2
Interpreting Horizontal and Vertical Analyses

Lowe’s has experienced a small decrease in its percentage of Cost of Sales in relation to Sales Revenue from fiscal 2009 to 2010. Decreasing cost of sales means higher Gross Profit.

Lowe’s did a better job of controlling its Operating Expenses between 2009 and 2010.




profitability ratios
Profitability Ratios

Net Profit Margin – The slowly improving economy helped boost Lowe’s profits in 2010 as shown by the increase in Net Profit Margin.

Gross Profit Percentage – Lowe’s gross profit percentage indicates how much profit was made on each dollar of sales after deducting the Cost of Goods Sold.

profitability ratios1
Profitability Ratios

Asset Turnover Ratio – indicates the amount of sales revenue generated for each dollar invested in assets during the period.

Fixed Asset Turnover – indicates how much revenue the company generates in sales for each dollar invested in fixed assets,

Home Depot 2010 fixed asset turnover ratio was 2.69

profitability ratios2
Profitability Ratios

Return on Equity (ROE) – Compares the amount of net income to average stockholders’ equity. ROE reports the net amount earned

during the period as a percentage of each dollar contributed by stockholders and retained in the business.

Earnings Per Share (EPS) – Shows the amount of earnings generated for each share of outstanding common stock.

profitability ratios3
Profitability Ratios

Price /Earnings (P/E) Ratio – Shows the relationship between EPS and the market price of one share of the company’s stock.

liquidity ratios
Liquidity Ratios

Let’s change our attention to an examination of liquidity ratios. The analyses in this section focus on the company’s ability to survive in the short term, by converting assets to cash that can be used to pay current liabilities as they come due.



Net Sales Revenue

Average Net Receivables


Receivable Turnover Ratio – Most retail home improvement companies have low levels of accounts receivable relative to sales revenue because they collect the majority of their sales immediately in cash.

liquidity ratios1
Liquidity Ratios

Inventory Turnover Ratio – The inventory turnover ratio indicates how frequently inventory is bought and sold. The “days to sell” indicates the average number of days needed to sell each purchase of inventory.

Home Depot sells its inventory in an average of 85 days in 2010.

Current Ratio – The current ratio measures the company’s ability to pay its current liabilities

liquidity ratios2
Liquidity Ratios

Quick Ratio – The quick ratio is a much more stringent test of short-term liquidity than is the current ratio. Lowe’s quick ratio increased slightly in 2010, just as its current ratio did.

Referred to as “quick assets.”

Let’s examine some Solvency Ratios

Solvency ratios focus on a company’s ability to survive over the long term, that is, its ability to repay debt at maturity and pay interest prior to that time.

solvency ratios
Solvency Ratios

Debt to Assets Ratio – indicates the proportion of total assets that creditors finance.

In 2010, The Home Depot had a debt-to-assets ratio of 53 percent.

Times Interest Earned – indicates how many times the company’s interest expense was covered by its operating results.

learning objective 13 6
Learning Objective 13-6

Describe how analyses depend on key accounting decisions and concepts.

underlying accounting decisions and concepts
Underlying Accounting Decisions and Concepts

Accounting Decisions

Difference in Strategies,e.g. type of financing.

Difference in Operations,e.g. quality of items sold.

Difference in Accounting Methods, e.g. FIFO vs. LIFO.

accounting concepts
Accounting Concepts

Companies may elect to use any acceptable generally accepted accounting principle (GAAP) as long as they apply the principle consistently.

factors contributing to going concern problems
Factors Contributing to Going-Concern Problems

Factors that commonly contribute to going-concern problems are listed below.

chapter 13 supplement 13a

Chapter 13Supplement 13A

Nonrecurring and Other Special Items

nonrecurring items
Nonrecurring Items

Extraordinary Items

Very few events qualify as extraordinary items.

Cumulative Effect of Changes in Accounting Methods

Direct adjustment to Retained Earnings rather than income reporting.

Discontinued Operations

For discontinued component two items are reported:

Operating income prior to the date of disposal.

Gain or loss on sale or disposal of net assets.

nonrecurring items1
Nonrecurring Items


Discontinued Operations.

other special items
Other Special Items

Comprehensive Income includes:

Gains or losses from certain foreign currency exchange rate changes.

Gains or losses resulting from the change in value of certain types of investments.

Excludedfrom net income because they are likely to disappear before they are ever realized.

chapter 13 supplement 13b

Chapter 13Supplement 13B

Reviewing and Contrasting IFRS and GAAP


At a basic level both IFRS and GAAP are concerned with accounting rules that describe

when an item should be recognized in the accounting system,

how that item should be classified (asset , liability, equity, expense, or revenue), and

the amount at which each item should be measured.



Report fixed assets at fair value.



chapter 13 solved exercises

Chapter 13Solved Exercises

M13-1, M13-2, M13-6, E13-1, E13-3, E13-4, E13-10, E13-13


M13-1 Calculations for Horizontal Analyses

Using the following income statements, perform the calculations needed for horizontal analyses. Round percentages to one decimal place.


M13-1 Calculations for Horizontal Analyses

($100,000 – $75,000)$75,000

× 100 = 33.3%


M13-2 Calculations for Vertical Analyses

Refer to M13-1 . Perform the calculations needed for vertical analyses. Round percentages to one decimal place.



× 100 = 21.0%


M13-6 Inferring Financial Information Using Gross Profit Percentage and Year-over-Year Comparisons

A consumer products company reported a 25 percent increase in sales from 2012 to 2013. Sales in 2012 were $200,000. In 2013, the company reported Cost of Goods Sold in the amount of $150,000. What was the gross profit percentage in 2013? Round to one decimal place.

Sales ($200,000 x 1.25) $250,000 100.0%

Cost of Goods Sold (given) (150,000) -60.0%

Gross Profit $100,000 40.0%



× 100 = 40.0%