The skeletal system
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The Skeletal system. Objectives. Students will identify the anatomy of the skeletal system Students will demonstrate understanding of bones & the functions of the skeletal system Students will demonstrate emergency assessment & care of skeletal injuries. Resources. Class Lecture Lab

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The Skeletal system

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The skeletal system

The Skeletal system


Objectives

Objectives

  • Students will identify the anatomy of the skeletal system

  • Students will demonstrate understanding of bones & the functions of the skeletal system

  • Students will demonstrate emergency assessment & care of skeletal injuries


Resources

Resources

  • Class Lecture

  • Lab

  • Class notes


Assessment

Assessment

  • Vocabulary terms

  • Unit test

  • Skeletal Lab


Anatomy

Anatomy


Bones

Bones

  • Compose the Skeletal System

  • 5 Important functions

    • Support

    • Protection

    • Movement

    • Storage

    • Blood Cell Formation


Bones1

BONEs

  • Compact Bone – dense & smooth

  • Spongy Bone – small pieces with lots of open spaces


Different type of bones

Different Type of Bones

  • Long Bones – longer than wide

    • Leg bones

    • Arm bones

  • Short Bones – cube shaped & has more spongy bone

    • Ankle bones

    • Wrist bones

  • Flat Bones – thin, flattened, & curved

    • Skull Ribs Sternum

  • Irregular Bones – all other bones that do not fit in the other categories

    • Vertebrae


Anatomy of bones

Anatomy of Bones


Anatomy of bone

Anatomy of Bone

  • Diaphysis – long shaft of bone

  • Epiphysis – the 2 ends

  • Medullary canal – cavity of the diaphysis

    • Yellow marrow – mainly storage for fat cells in the medullary canal

      • Contains cells to make leukocytes

      • Endosteum – membrane that lines the medullary canal & keeps yellow marrow intact & bone growth

  • Periosteum – tough membrane on the outside of bone


Bone formation development

Bone formation & development

  • Ossification – Bone Development

  • 2 phases

    • Osteoblasts – bone forming cells

    • Osteoclasts – bone destroying cells

      Bone Remodeling – ability of bones to maintain their shape, strength, & proportions during growth & changes in body weight


Bones of the skull

Bones of the Skull

  • Frontal Bone

  • Parietal Bones

  • Temporal Bones

  • Occipital Bone

  • Sphenoid Bone

  • Ethmoid Bone

  • Sinuses of the skull

    • Frontal

    • Ethmoid

    • Sphenoid

    • Maxillary


Bones of the skull1

Bones of the SKull


Facial bones

Facial Bones

  • Maxillary Bones

  • Palentine Bones

  • Zygomatic Bones

  • Lacrimal Bones

  • Nasal Bones

  • Vomer Bones

  • Mandible Bones


Sinuses

Sinuses


Vertebrae

Vertebrae

  • Cervical

  • Thoracic

  • Lumbar


Cervical spine

Cervical Spine

  • C1 – Atlas

  • C2 – Axis

  • This joint allows you to nod & shake your head

  • 1 – 7 vertebraes


Thoracic spine

Thoracic Spine

  • Consist of 12 vertebrae

  • T1 – T12

  • Vertebrae are larger than cervical


Lumbar spine

Lumbar Spine

  • Block – like vertebrae

  • L1 – L5

  • Common back injury


Chest ribs

Chest & ribs

  • Sternum

  • Xiphoid Process

  • 12 pairs of ribs

    • 7 pairs of true ribs

    • 5 false or floating ribs


Sacrum coccyx

Sacrum & Coccyx

  • Fusion of the 5 vertebrae

  • Coccyx – also known as the tailbone


Arm shoulder bones

Arm & Shoulder Bones

  • Clavicle – Collar Bone

  • Scapula – shoulder blades

  • Humerus

  • Radius

  • Ulna


Leg bones

Leg Bones

  • Femur

  • Patella

  • Tibia

  • Fibula


Pelvis bones

Pelvis Bones

  • Illium

  • Ischium

  • Pubis


Differences in male female pelvis

Differences in male & Female Pelvis


Hands feet

Hands & Feet


Hands feet1

Hands & Feet

  • Metacarpals

  • Metatarsals

  • Phalanges


Joints

joints

  • Area where 2 or more bones join together

  • 3 major types

    • Diarthrosis (Synovial) – free moving joints

      • Ball & Socket joints

        • Hips

        • Shoulders

      • Hinge joints

        • Elbow

        • Knees


The skeletal system

  • Amphiarthrosis- slightly movable

    • Thoracic vertebrae & the ribs

    • Symphysis pubis (2 pubic bones)

  • Synarthrosis – immovable; do not move

    • Sutures of the cranium


Fractures

FRactures


Fractures1

Fractures

  • Closed (Simple) – bone breaks but does not come through the skin

  • Open (Compound) – broken bone that breaks through the skin

  • Comminuted – bone is broken into several pieces

  • Greenstick – one side of the bone is broken & other side is bent

  • Spiral – bone is twisted

  • Colles – break/dislocation distal radius

  • www.medterms.com


Treatment for fractures

Treatment for Fractures

  • Reduction – re-alignment of the bone

    • Closed – bone is lined up manipulation and traction, applying cast or splint

    • Open – bone is re-aligned by surgery & secured with wires & pins


4 major steps in fracture healing

4 major steps in fracture healing

  • Hematoma forms

  • Break is splinted by a fibrocartilage callus

  • Bone callus is formed

  • Remodeling occurs


Diseases

Diseases

  • Bursitis – inflammation of the bursae

    • Symptoms

      • Pain

      • Limited movement

      • Fluid accumulation in joint

    • Treatment

      • Pain meds

      • Injection of steroids

      • Anesthetics into affected joint

      • Rest

      • Physical therapy


Diseases1

diseases

  • Arthritis – inflammation of the joints

    • Osteoarthritis – most common; chronic

      • Symptoms

        • Joint pain

        • Stiffness

        • Aching

        • Limited range of motion

      • Treatment

        • Rest

        • Heat/cold

        • Anti-flammatory medication

        • Exercise

        • Steroids


Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis


The skeletal system

  • Rheumatoid arthritis – chronic that affects connective tissue & joints

  • 3 x more common in women than men 35-45

    • Symptoms

      • Atrophy of bone & muscles

      • Pain

      • Permanent deformity

    • Treatment

      • Antiflammatory meds

      • Steroids

      • Rest

      • surgery


Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis


1 st aid for fractures lab exercises

1st aid for fracturesLAB exercises

  • Splinting

  • Immobilization

  • Slings


Review

review


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