the skeletal system
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The Skeletal system. Objectives. Students will identify the anatomy of the skeletal system Students will demonstrate understanding of bones & the functions of the skeletal system Students will demonstrate emergency assessment & care of skeletal injuries. Resources. Class Lecture Lab

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objectives
Objectives
  • Students will identify the anatomy of the skeletal system
  • Students will demonstrate understanding of bones & the functions of the skeletal system
  • Students will demonstrate emergency assessment & care of skeletal injuries
resources
Resources
  • Class Lecture
  • Lab
  • Class notes
assessment
Assessment
  • Vocabulary terms
  • Unit test
  • Skeletal Lab
bones
Bones
  • Compose the Skeletal System
  • 5 Important functions
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Movement
    • Storage
    • Blood Cell Formation
bones1
BONEs
  • Compact Bone – dense & smooth
  • Spongy Bone – small pieces with lots of open spaces
different type of bones
Different Type of Bones
  • Long Bones – longer than wide
    • Leg bones
    • Arm bones
  • Short Bones – cube shaped & has more spongy bone
    • Ankle bones
    • Wrist bones
  • Flat Bones – thin, flattened, & curved
    • Skull Ribs Sternum
  • Irregular Bones – all other bones that do not fit in the other categories
    • Vertebrae
anatomy of bone
Anatomy of Bone
  • Diaphysis – long shaft of bone
  • Epiphysis – the 2 ends
  • Medullary canal – cavity of the diaphysis
    • Yellow marrow – mainly storage for fat cells in the medullary canal
      • Contains cells to make leukocytes
      • Endosteum – membrane that lines the medullary canal & keeps yellow marrow intact & bone growth
  • Periosteum – tough membrane on the outside of bone
bone formation development
Bone formation & development
  • Ossification – Bone Development
  • 2 phases
    • Osteoblasts – bone forming cells
    • Osteoclasts – bone destroying cells

Bone Remodeling – ability of bones to maintain their shape, strength, & proportions during growth & changes in body weight

bones of the skull
Bones of the Skull
  • Frontal Bone
  • Parietal Bones
  • Temporal Bones
  • Occipital Bone
  • Sphenoid Bone
  • Ethmoid Bone
  • Sinuses of the skull
    • Frontal
    • Ethmoid
    • Sphenoid
    • Maxillary
facial bones
Facial Bones
  • Maxillary Bones
  • Palentine Bones
  • Zygomatic Bones
  • Lacrimal Bones
  • Nasal Bones
  • Vomer Bones
  • Mandible Bones
vertebrae
Vertebrae
  • Cervical
  • Thoracic
  • Lumbar
cervical spine
Cervical Spine
  • C1 – Atlas
  • C2 – Axis
  • This joint allows you to nod & shake your head
  • 1 – 7 vertebraes
thoracic spine
Thoracic Spine
  • Consist of 12 vertebrae
  • T1 – T12
  • Vertebrae are larger than cervical
lumbar spine
Lumbar Spine
  • Block – like vertebrae
  • L1 – L5
  • Common back injury
chest ribs
Chest & ribs
  • Sternum
  • Xiphoid Process
  • 12 pairs of ribs
    • 7 pairs of true ribs
    • 5 false or floating ribs
sacrum coccyx
Sacrum & Coccyx
  • Fusion of the 5 vertebrae
  • Coccyx – also known as the tailbone
arm shoulder bones
Arm & Shoulder Bones
  • Clavicle – Collar Bone
  • Scapula – shoulder blades
  • Humerus
  • Radius
  • Ulna
leg bones
Leg Bones
  • Femur
  • Patella
  • Tibia
  • Fibula
pelvis bones
Pelvis Bones
  • Illium
  • Ischium
  • Pubis
hands feet1
Hands & Feet
  • Metacarpals
  • Metatarsals
  • Phalanges
joints
joints
  • Area where 2 or more bones join together
  • 3 major types
    • Diarthrosis (Synovial) – free moving joints
      • Ball & Socket joints
        • Hips
        • Shoulders
      • Hinge joints
        • Elbow
        • Knees
slide32

Amphiarthrosis- slightly movable

    • Thoracic vertebrae & the ribs
    • Symphysis pubis (2 pubic bones)
  • Synarthrosis – immovable; do not move
    • Sutures of the cranium
fractures1
Fractures
  • Closed (Simple) – bone breaks but does not come through the skin
  • Open (Compound) – broken bone that breaks through the skin
  • Comminuted – bone is broken into several pieces
  • Greenstick – one side of the bone is broken & other side is bent
  • Spiral – bone is twisted
  • Colles – break/dislocation distal radius
  • www.medterms.com
treatment for fractures
Treatment for Fractures
  • Reduction – re-alignment of the bone
    • Closed – bone is lined up manipulation and traction, applying cast or splint
    • Open – bone is re-aligned by surgery & secured with wires & pins
4 major steps in fracture healing
4 major steps in fracture healing
  • Hematoma forms
  • Break is splinted by a fibrocartilage callus
  • Bone callus is formed
  • Remodeling occurs
diseases
Diseases
  • Bursitis – inflammation of the bursae
    • Symptoms
      • Pain
      • Limited movement
      • Fluid accumulation in joint
    • Treatment
      • Pain meds
      • Injection of steroids
      • Anesthetics into affected joint
      • Rest
      • Physical therapy
diseases1
diseases
  • Arthritis – inflammation of the joints
    • Osteoarthritis – most common; chronic
      • Symptoms
        • Joint pain
        • Stiffness
        • Aching
        • Limited range of motion
      • Treatment
        • Rest
        • Heat/cold
        • Anti-flammatory medication
        • Exercise
        • Steroids
slide41

Rheumatoid arthritis – chronic that affects connective tissue & joints

  • 3 x more common in women than men 35-45
    • Symptoms
      • Atrophy of bone & muscles
      • Pain
      • Permanent deformity
    • Treatment
      • Antiflammatory meds
      • Steroids
      • Rest
      • surgery
1 st aid for fractures lab exercises
1st aid for fracturesLAB exercises
  • Splinting
  • Immobilization
  • Slings
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