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???. What causes a black eye? Blood vessels burst causing blood to pool in that area. How many bones are in the human body? 206 What is the human body ’ s largest organ? Skin. Chapter 37. Introduction to Body Structure. Section 37.1. Body Organization. Organ Systems Organs

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5768682

???

  • What causes a black eye?

    • Blood vessels burst causing blood to pool in that area.

  • How many bones are in the human body?

    • 206

  • What is the human body’s largest organ?

    • Skin


Chapter 37

Chapter 37

Introduction to Body Structure


Section 37 1

Section 37.1

Body Organization


4 levels of structural organization

Organ Systems

Organs

Tissues

Cells

Tissue

Group of similar cells that perform a common function

Building blocks of the human body

4 Levels of Structural Organization


4 kinds of tissues

4 Kinds of Tissues

  • 1. Epithelial

    • Lines most body surfaces

    • Protects other tissues from dehydration and physical damage

  • 2. Nervous

    • Consists of nerve cells and supporting cells

    • Carries info. throughout the body

  • 3. Connective

    • Supports, protects and insulates

    • Includes fat, cartilage, bone, tendons and blood

  • 4. Muscle

    • Enables movement of body structures


3 types of muscle tissue

3 Types of Muscle Tissue

  • 1. Skeletal

    • Voluntary

    • Moves bones in the trunk and limbs

  • 2. Smooth

    • Involuntary

    • Line the walls of blood vessels and some organs

  • 3. Cardiac

    • Involuntary

    • Found in the heart

    • Pump blood throughout the body


Stem cells

Stem Cells

  • Give rise to all types of cells

  • Can form any type of body tissue

  • Can divide indefinitely in embryos

  • Can possibly repair damaged tissues

  • Produce blood cells in bone marrow

  • Adult stem cells only divide ~100 times


Organ systems

A group of organs that work together to carry out a major activities or processes

Table 1 p. 848

Circulatory

Digestive

Endocrine

Excretory

Immune

Integumentary

Muscular

Nervous

Reproductive

Respiratory

Skeletal

Organ Systems


Body cavities

Body Cavities

  • Fluid-filled spaces that house and protect major internal organs

  • 5 Types

    • 1. Cranial

      • Brain

    • 2. Spinal

      • Spinal cord

    • 3. Thoracic

      • Heart and lungs

    • 4. Abdominal

      • Digestive organs

    • 5. Pelvic

      • Reproductive organs


Endothermy

Endothermy

  • Organisms that maintain a constant internal temperature

  • Critical to homeostasis

  • Negative feedback system

    • Output of a system acts to oppose changes to the input of a system


Answer the following s

Answer the Following ?’s

  • List the 4 levels of structural organization within the body.

  • Describe the 4 types of body tissues.

  • List the body’s major organ systems and describe their function.

  • Describe how endothermy helps maintain homeostasis.


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  • What part of your skeletal system do you think is the most important? Why?


Section 37 2

Section 37.2

Skeletal System


The skeleton

The Skeleton

  • Allows us to stand and perform everyday activities (along with our muscles)

  • Axial Skeleton

    • Bones of the skull, spine, ribs

      and sternum

    • 80

  • Appendicular Skeleton

    • Bones of the arms, legs, pelvis

      and shoulder

    • 126


Axial skeleton

Axial Skeleton

  • 29 bones in the skull

    • 8 form the cranium

    • 14 are facial bones

    • 6 middle ear bones

    • 1 supports your tongue

  • 26 vertebrae

  • 12 pairs of ribs

  • 1 sternum


Appendicular skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton

  • Forms limbs (arms & legs)

    • Shoulders

    • Arms

    • Hips

    • Legs

  • Shoulder blades

  • Collar bones

  • Pelvic bones


Structure of bone

Structure of Bone

  • Compact bone

    • Dense tissue, provides support

  • Spongy bone

    • Loose structure of connective tissue

  • Bone Marrow

    • Soft tissue inside the bone

    • Red

      • Production of blood cells

    • Yellow

      • Consists of fat

  • Periosteum

    • Hard, outer layer


Growth of bones

Growth of Bones

  • Haversian Canals

    • Hallow channels in compact

      bone where new bone cells

      are added in layers

  • Osteocytes

    • Maintain the mineral

      content of bone

    • Blood vessels that run

      through haversian canals

      provide nutrients to

      osteocytes


Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis

  • Occurs when bone

    tissue is lost, and

    becomes less dense

  • Porous bone


Joints

Joints

  • Where 2 bones meet

  • Cartilage cushions joints

  • Held together by ligaments

    • Prevent bones from moving too far in one direction


3 main types of joints

3 Main Types of Joints

  • Immovable

    • Little or no movement

      • Cranial bones

  • Slightly Movable

    • Limited movement

      • Vertebrae

  • Freely Movable

    • Movement allowed

      • Knee


Movable joints

Movable Joints

  • Ball-and-socket

    • Shoulders and hips

  • Pivot

    • Rotation

    • Turning of head

  • Hinge

    • Bending and straightening

    • Elbows, knuckles, knees

  • Gliding

    • Sliding

    • Wrists and ankles

  • Saddle

    • Rotation, bending and straightening

    • Base of thumbs


Disorders of joints

Disorders of Joints

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

    • Inflammation of freely movable joints

    • Cells of immune system attack tissues around joints

  • Osteoarthritis

    • Degeneration of cartilage

    • Bones rub together


Section 37 3

Section 37.3

Muscular System


Muscles and movement

Muscles and Movement

  • Everyday activities require muscles.

    • Walking

    • Running

    • Brushing your teeth

    • Eating

    • Writing notes


Movement of the skeleton

Movement of the Skeleton

  • Tendons

    • Connect muscles to bones

  • Origin

    • Bone that stays stationary during muscle contraction

  • Insertion

    • Bone that moves when muscle contracts


Movement of the skeleton1

Movement of the Skeleton

  • Flexor

    • Muscle that causes a joint to bend

  • Extensor

    • Muscle that causes a joint to straighten


Muscle structure

Muscle Structure

  • Actin and Myosin

    • Protein filaments of connective tissue that holds muscle cells together and provide elasticity.

  • Myofibrils

    • Muscle fibers that have a cylindrical structure

  • Sarcomere

    • Area between the Z lines of myofibrils

  • Myofibrils and sacromeres are made up of actin and myosin


Muscle contraction

Muscle Contraction

  • Step 1

    • Sarcomere is relaxed, myosin and actin partially overlap each other

  • Step 2

    • Nerve cells povide signal

    • Actin and myosin overlap more

    • Sarcomere becomes shorter

  • Step 3

    • Sarcomere is fully contracted

    • Actin and myosin fully overlap each other


Aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways

Aerobic and Anaerobic Energy Pathways

  • Aerobic respiration requires ATP to power muscle contractions

  • Glycolysis (an anaerobic process) supplies ATP during intense activity

  • When aerobic and anaerobic pathways cant keep up we use glycogen and fat as energy sources


Exercise and fitness

Exercise and Fitness

  • Why does exercise become easier after prolonged training?

    • More oxygen supplied to muscles

    • More ATP available for contractions

    • Reduces muscle fatigue

  • Why is stretching necessary?

    • Over-stretched muscles can tear

  • How do muscles increase in size?

    • Muscle break apart and repairing makes them bigger


Section 37 3 questions

Section 37.3 Questions

  • Describe the action of muscles moving in pairs in the body.

  • Describe the different parts of the muscle and how they play a role in muscle contraction.

  • How is energy supplied to the muscles for contraction?


Muscle and bone research part ii

Muscle and Bone Research Part II

  • Use the supplies on the side counter to complete a detailed drawing of your muscle and your bone.

    • Try to be as detailed as you can.

      • Muscle fibers

      • Structure of bones

  • Once your drawings are complete attach them to the right side of the cardboard cutout or the piece of butcher paper that represents the back of the skeleton.


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  • List 5 things you did so far today that required the use of your muscular system.

  • List any other organ system on p. 848 that your body has used, and the activity that required that system to function.

  • Your skin has many functions. How is it helped/protected you today? List as many as you can.


Section 37 4

Section 37.4

Skin, Hair, and Nails


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Skin

  • 15% of total body weight

  • Largest organ of your body

  • Hair and nails form here

  • Protection from

    dehydration

  • 2 main layers:

    • Epidermis

    • Dermis


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Skin

  • Epidermis

    • Outermost layer of the skin

  • Keratin

    • A protein that makes skin tough and waterproof

  • Melanin

    • Cells that give skin its color

  • Skin cells aren’t repaired, they are replaced


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Skin

  • Dermis

    • Functional layer of skin that is beneath the epidermis

    • Contains hair follicles, nerve cells, blood vessels, other skin cells

    • Nerve cells in dermis give us the sense of touch

  • Temperature Regulation

    • Blood vessels flowing near the surface release heat from the body

    • Sweat glands also releases heat


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Skin

  • Subcutaneous tissue

    • Layer of connective tissue, mostly fat, found underneath the dermis

    • Provides insulation and stores energy


Hair and nails

Hair and Nails

  • Protrude from the epidermis

  • Hair sheds because it is no longer growing

  • The white area near the base of your nail is where new nail cells are made

  • Nails grow throughout your entire life


Skin disorders

Skin Disorders

  • Acne

    • Oil glands in the dermis secrete sebum

    • Sebum clogs pores causing the oil to build up

  • Skin Cancer

    • Can be caused by over-exposure to UV rays

    • Carcinomas

      • More treatable

    • Melanomas

      • Grow quickly less treatable


Chapter 37 wrap up

Chapter 37 Wrap-Up ?

  • Describe how the organization of the different structures in your body allow you to complete the everyday activities you enjoy, and how they help you function in a stable manner.

    • Organ systems, Organs, Tissue, Cells

    • Bones, Muscle, Skin

  • Answer this question on a piece of notebook paper in no less than 5 sentences.


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