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???. What causes a black eye? Blood vessels burst causing blood to pool in that area. How many bones are in the human body? 206 What is the human body ’ s largest organ? Skin. Chapter 37. Introduction to Body Structure. Section 37.1. Body Organization. Organ Systems Organs

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  • What causes a black eye?

    • Blood vessels burst causing blood to pool in that area.

  • How many bones are in the human body?

    • 206

  • What is the human body’s largest organ?

    • Skin

Chapter 37

Chapter 37

Introduction to Body Structure

Section 37 1

Section 37.1

Body Organization

4 levels of structural organization

Organ Systems





Group of similar cells that perform a common function

Building blocks of the human body

4 Levels of Structural Organization

4 kinds of tissues
4 Kinds of Tissues

  • 1. Epithelial

    • Lines most body surfaces

    • Protects other tissues from dehydration and physical damage

  • 2. Nervous

    • Consists of nerve cells and supporting cells

    • Carries info. throughout the body

  • 3. Connective

    • Supports, protects and insulates

    • Includes fat, cartilage, bone, tendons and blood

  • 4. Muscle

    • Enables movement of body structures

3 types of muscle tissue
3 Types of Muscle Tissue

  • 1. Skeletal

    • Voluntary

    • Moves bones in the trunk and limbs

  • 2. Smooth

    • Involuntary

    • Line the walls of blood vessels and some organs

  • 3. Cardiac

    • Involuntary

    • Found in the heart

    • Pump blood throughout the body

Stem cells
Stem Cells

  • Give rise to all types of cells

  • Can form any type of body tissue

  • Can divide indefinitely in embryos

  • Can possibly repair damaged tissues

  • Produce blood cells in bone marrow

  • Adult stem cells only divide ~100 times

Organ systems

A group of organs that work together to carry out a major activities or processes

Table 1 p. 848












Organ Systems

Body cavities
Body Cavities activities or processes

  • Fluid-filled spaces that house and protect major internal organs

  • 5 Types

    • 1. Cranial

      • Brain

    • 2. Spinal

      • Spinal cord

    • 3. Thoracic

      • Heart and lungs

    • 4. Abdominal

      • Digestive organs

    • 5. Pelvic

      • Reproductive organs

Endothermy activities or processes

  • Organisms that maintain a constant internal temperature

  • Critical to homeostasis

  • Negative feedback system

    • Output of a system acts to oppose changes to the input of a system

Answer the following s
Answer the Following ? activities or processes’s

  • List the 4 levels of structural organization within the body.

  • Describe the 4 types of body tissues.

  • List the body’s major organ systems and describe their function.

  • Describe how endothermy helps maintain homeostasis.

??? activities or processes

  • What part of your skeletal system do you think is the most important? Why?

Section 37 2

Section 37.2 activities or processes

Skeletal System

The skeleton
The Skeleton activities or processes

  • Allows us to stand and perform everyday activities (along with our muscles)

  • Axial Skeleton

    • Bones of the skull, spine, ribs

      and sternum

    • 80

  • Appendicular Skeleton

    • Bones of the arms, legs, pelvis

      and shoulder

    • 126

Axial skeleton
Axial Skeleton activities or processes

  • 29 bones in the skull

    • 8 form the cranium

    • 14 are facial bones

    • 6 middle ear bones

    • 1 supports your tongue

  • 26 vertebrae

  • 12 pairs of ribs

  • 1 sternum

Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton activities or processes

  • Forms limbs (arms & legs)

    • Shoulders

    • Arms

    • Hips

    • Legs

  • Shoulder blades

  • Collar bones

  • Pelvic bones

Structure of bone
Structure of Bone activities or processes

  • Compact bone

    • Dense tissue, provides support

  • Spongy bone

    • Loose structure of connective tissue

  • Bone Marrow

    • Soft tissue inside the bone

    • Red

      • Production of blood cells

    • Yellow

      • Consists of fat

  • Periosteum

    • Hard, outer layer

Growth of bones
Growth of Bones activities or processes

  • Haversian Canals

    • Hallow channels in compact

      bone where new bone cells

      are added in layers

  • Osteocytes

    • Maintain the mineral

      content of bone

    • Blood vessels that run

      through haversian canals

      provide nutrients to


Osteoporosis activities or processes

  • Occurs when bone

    tissue is lost, and

    becomes less dense

  • Porous bone

Joints activities or processes

  • Where 2 bones meet

  • Cartilage cushions joints

  • Held together by ligaments

    • Prevent bones from moving too far in one direction

3 main types of joints
3 Main Types of Joints activities or processes

  • Immovable

    • Little or no movement

      • Cranial bones

  • Slightly Movable

    • Limited movement

      • Vertebrae

  • Freely Movable

    • Movement allowed

      • Knee

Movable joints
Movable Joints activities or processes

  • Ball-and-socket

    • Shoulders and hips

  • Pivot

    • Rotation

    • Turning of head

  • Hinge

    • Bending and straightening

    • Elbows, knuckles, knees

  • Gliding

    • Sliding

    • Wrists and ankles

  • Saddle

    • Rotation, bending and straightening

    • Base of thumbs

Disorders of joints
Disorders of Joints activities or processes

  • Rheumatoid arthritis

    • Inflammation of freely movable joints

    • Cells of immune system attack tissues around joints

  • Osteoarthritis

    • Degeneration of cartilage

    • Bones rub together

Section 37 3

Section 37.3 activities or processes

Muscular System

Muscles and movement
Muscles and Movement activities or processes

  • Everyday activities require muscles.

    • Walking

    • Running

    • Brushing your teeth

    • Eating

    • Writing notes

Movement of the skeleton
Movement of the Skeleton activities or processes

  • Tendons

    • Connect muscles to bones

  • Origin

    • Bone that stays stationary during muscle contraction

  • Insertion

    • Bone that moves when muscle contracts

Movement of the skeleton1
Movement of the Skeleton activities or processes

  • Flexor

    • Muscle that causes a joint to bend

  • Extensor

    • Muscle that causes a joint to straighten

Muscle structure
Muscle Structure activities or processes

  • Actin and Myosin

    • Protein filaments of connective tissue that holds muscle cells together and provide elasticity.

  • Myofibrils

    • Muscle fibers that have a cylindrical structure

  • Sarcomere

    • Area between the Z lines of myofibrils

  • Myofibrils and sacromeres are made up of actin and myosin

Muscle contraction
Muscle Contraction activities or processes

  • Step 1

    • Sarcomere is relaxed, myosin and actin partially overlap each other

  • Step 2

    • Nerve cells povide signal

    • Actin and myosin overlap more

    • Sarcomere becomes shorter

  • Step 3

    • Sarcomere is fully contracted

    • Actin and myosin fully overlap each other

Aerobic and anaerobic energy pathways
Aerobic and Anaerobic Energy Pathways activities or processes

  • Aerobic respiration requires ATP to power muscle contractions

  • Glycolysis (an anaerobic process) supplies ATP during intense activity

  • When aerobic and anaerobic pathways cant keep up we use glycogen and fat as energy sources

Exercise and fitness
Exercise and Fitness activities or processes

  • Why does exercise become easier after prolonged training?

    • More oxygen supplied to muscles

    • More ATP available for contractions

    • Reduces muscle fatigue

  • Why is stretching necessary?

    • Over-stretched muscles can tear

  • How do muscles increase in size?

    • Muscle break apart and repairing makes them bigger

Section 37 3 questions
Section 37.3 Questions activities or processes

  • Describe the action of muscles moving in pairs in the body.

  • Describe the different parts of the muscle and how they play a role in muscle contraction.

  • How is energy supplied to the muscles for contraction?

Muscle and bone research part ii
Muscle and Bone Research Part II activities or processes

  • Use the supplies on the side counter to complete a detailed drawing of your muscle and your bone.

    • Try to be as detailed as you can.

      • Muscle fibers

      • Structure of bones

  • Once your drawings are complete attach them to the right side of the cardboard cutout or the piece of butcher paper that represents the back of the skeleton.

??? activities or processes

  • List 5 things you did so far today that required the use of your muscular system.

  • List any other organ system on p. 848 that your body has used, and the activity that required that system to function.

  • Your skin has many functions. How is it helped/protected you today? List as many as you can.

Section 37 4

Section 37.4 activities or processes

Skin, Hair, and Nails

Skin activities or processes

  • 15% of total body weight

  • Largest organ of your body

  • Hair and nails form here

  • Protection from


  • 2 main layers:

    • Epidermis

    • Dermis

Skin activities or processes

  • Epidermis

    • Outermost layer of the skin

  • Keratin

    • A protein that makes skin tough and waterproof

  • Melanin

    • Cells that give skin its color

  • Skin cells aren’t repaired, they are replaced

Skin activities or processes

  • Dermis

    • Functional layer of skin that is beneath the epidermis

    • Contains hair follicles, nerve cells, blood vessels, other skin cells

    • Nerve cells in dermis give us the sense of touch

  • Temperature Regulation

    • Blood vessels flowing near the surface release heat from the body

    • Sweat glands also releases heat

Skin activities or processes

  • Subcutaneous tissue

    • Layer of connective tissue, mostly fat, found underneath the dermis

    • Provides insulation and stores energy

Hair and nails
Hair and Nails activities or processes

  • Protrude from the epidermis

  • Hair sheds because it is no longer growing

  • The white area near the base of your nail is where new nail cells are made

  • Nails grow throughout your entire life

Skin disorders
Skin Disorders activities or processes

  • Acne

    • Oil glands in the dermis secrete sebum

    • Sebum clogs pores causing the oil to build up

  • Skin Cancer

    • Can be caused by over-exposure to UV rays

    • Carcinomas

      • More treatable

    • Melanomas

      • Grow quickly less treatable

Chapter 37 wrap up
Chapter 37 Wrap-Up ? activities or processes

  • Describe how the organization of the different structures in your body allow you to complete the everyday activities you enjoy, and how they help you function in a stable manner.

    • Organ systems, Organs, Tissue, Cells

    • Bones, Muscle, Skin

  • Answer this question on a piece of notebook paper in no less than 5 sentences.