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HANDOUT. Federal Income Taxes Corporations and Individuals. Income Taxes. Cliche - “There are only two things certain in life - death and taxes.” This is one of most written about and discussed topics in American life.

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Federal Income Taxes

Corporations and Individuals

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Income Taxes

  • Cliche - “There are only two things certain in life - death and taxes.”

  • This is one of most written about and discussed topics in American life.

  • There are many thousands of books, articles, jokes and cartoons on the subject.

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Income Taxes

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Income Taxes

The difference between the short and long income tax forms is simple. If you use the short form, the government gets your money. If you use the long form, the accountant gets your money.

A nervous taxpayer was unhappily conversing with the IRS auditor who had come to review his records. At one point the auditor exclaimed, Mr. Carr, we feel it is a great privilege to be allowed to live and work in the USA. As a citizen you have an obligation to pay taxes, and we expect you to eagerly pay them with a smile. Thank God, returned Mr. Carr. I thought you were going to want cash.

Even worse accounting jokes are available on the Web.

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Income Taxes

  • The tax handout gives a broad overview of corporate and individual taxes.

  • Loyola offers three tax courses

    • One at undergraduate level

    • Two in MBA program

  • Masters in Taxation is available in

    • Business Schools (MS)

    • Law Schools (LLM)

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Supreme Court


Income Taxes

  • Tax law vs. GAAP

    • Who makes tax law?





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Income Taxes

  • Tax law vs. GAAP

    • Who makes tax law?

  • Who makes GAAP?

  • Two sets of books

  • CPAs and taxes

    We are all experts in this field - NOT!

  • Tax avoidance vs. tax evasion

    Which is illegal?

  • Where do you get copies of tax forms?

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    Who Pays And Who Does Not Pay Income Taxes?

    • Pays

      • Corporations

      • Individuals

    • Does not pay

      • Not-for-profit organizations

        • e.g., Loyola College

      • Proprietorships and Partnerships

        • They file informational returns only.

        • Then, how is the income taxed?

        • On the owners’ personal returns

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    Corporate Taxes

    • “Income Before Taxes” is a line on an Income Statement prepared using GAAP.

    • “Taxable Income” is a line on a tax return.

      i.e., the amount on which the corp. pays tax.

    • Reasons why above amounts may differ

      • Certain corporate revenues and expenses are excluded in computing taxable income.

        • These are known as “permanent” differences.

      • Timing of recognition of revenues and expenses may differ.

        • Known as “temporary” differences.

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    Corporate Taxes

    Tax Rates

    • Technically, corporate tax rates are not a flat rate; they are graduated as with individual’s rates.

    • However, for corporations with taxable incomes exceeding a relatively small amount ($335,000 in 1991), the tax is flat.

      • Therefore, the effect is a flat tax for most corporations.

    • Tax rates will be provided on the test if needed.

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    Corporate Taxes

    • Loss Carrybacks and Carryforwards

      • Current year tax losses can be carried back 3 years and forward 15 years.

      • If the loss is not “used up” by the end of the 15th year, what happens?

    • A loss carryback results in a tax refund in the current year for taxes paid in past year(s).

    • A loss carryforward is applied against taxable income in future years.

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    Depreciate me

    Corporate Taxes

    • Depreciation Methods

      • Methods used for taxpurposes are quite different from those used for financialstatement purposes

      • Therein lies a major reason for most corporations keeping “two sets of books”

    • Key to understanding tax depreciation

      “The depreciable period or useful life used for tax purposes is based on law and has no relationship to the actual useful life of the asset; thus, no attempt is made to match revenues and expenses.”

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    Corporate Taxes

    • Tax depreciation is based on MACRS

      • Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System

      • It is an accelerated method similar to the double-declining-balance and sum-of-the-years digits methods.

    • Straight-line depreciation can also be used for tax purposes.

    • You are notresponsible for any depreciation calculations

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    Corporate Taxes

    • Income Tax Allocation (pp. 21-24)

      • This is how to account for taxes under GAAP, not how to calculate taxes owed.

      • Congress vs. FASB

    • Two reasons for differences in Taxable Income (from tax return) and “Book” Income (from income statement)

      • Permanent differences

      • Temporary (or timing) differences

    Tax Return

    Income Statement

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    Corporate TaxesPermanent Differences

    • As previously mentioned, certain corporate revenues and expenses are excluded in computing taxable income.

      i.e., they are never shown on the tax return

    • Permanent differences include

      • Nontaxable revenues

      • Nondeductible expenses

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    Corporate TaxesPermanent Differences

    • Nontaxable revenue examples

      • Life insurance proceeds on death of key employee

      • Interest received from state and local bonds

    • Nondeductible expense examples

      • Premiums paid on life insurance policies for key-employees

      • Lobbying expenses

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    Corporate TaxesTemporary Differences

    These are differences between taxable income and book income caused by items that affect both, but in different periods.

    Therefore, they are also calledtiming differences.

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    Corporate TaxesTemporary Differences

    Temporary/timing differences include:

    • Revenues reported earlier on the tax return than on the books

      • e.g., Revenue received in advance

    • Expenses reported later on the tax return than on the books

      • e.g., Expenses based on estimates such as uncollectible accounts expense

    • Expenses reported earlier on the tax return than on the books

      • e.g., when different depreciation methods are used for book and tax purposes.

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    Reconciliation of Book Income to Taxable Income (p. 22)

    per tax return

    Corporate TaxesTemporary Differences

    A reconciliation must be used to explain why book and taxable income differ.

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    Corporate TaxesTemporary Differences

    All temporary differences require the use of interperiod income tax allocation.

    Tax on the item causing the difference will be reported in the period in which the item is reported for accounting purposes, regardless of when it is reported for tax purposes. (i.e., there must be a “normal” relationship between Pretax Income and Income Tax Expense on the Income Statement.)

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    * Note normal 15% relationship each year. This would not be the case if the amount of tax paid (i.e., amount on tax return) were reported as the income tax expense on the income statement.


    Corporate TaxesTemporary Differences

    Page 23

    [Per Tax Return]

    [Per Income Statement

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    Personal Income Tax







    Joe P. Taxpayer 123 45 6789


    Sally L. Taxpayer 987 65 4321

    123 Main Street

    Anywhere, USA 55555-5555





    Kenny Taxpayer Son

    Posh Taxpayer Daughter

    Tinkie Winky Taxpayer ???


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    Personal Income Tax

    Whether an individual needs to file a tax return depends on whether their income exceeds the sum of:

    • Their standard deduction amount, plus

    • Their exemption amount

      • e.g., using 1998 rates, a single person would not file unless their gross income were greater than $6,950.

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    Personal Income Tax

    Four Filing Statuses

    • Single

    • Married filing jointly

    • Married filing separately

    • Head of household

      • Congress in it’s wisdom has seen fit to set different tax rates for each.

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    Examples of Excluded IncomeGifts, inheritances, interest on state bonds,

    certain Social Security benefits. (NOTE: These items are not deducted! They are just never included.)

    Also includes illegal gambling income and other illegal income.


    Personal Income TaxTaxable Income

    Flow Chart for Determination of Taxable Income for Individual Taxpayer (p. 25)

    Know the model!

    Gross (Total) Income

    Includes all income from whatever source derived except for a few specifically excluded items. Includes such items as wages, dividends, interest, proprietorship earnings, taxpayer’s share of partnership earnings, net rents.

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    Examples: Individual Retirement Accounts (IRA) and Keogh plans.



    Personal Income TaxTaxable Income


    Deductions From Gross Income

    Consists of business expenses, payments to an individual retirement arrangement, and a few other minor items.

    Adjusted Gross Income

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    Personal Income TaxTaxable Income

    Standard Deduction - A specified amount that is permitted by tax law to be deducted in lieu of itemized deductions. It changes each year because it is indexed to inflation.


    Standard or Itemized Personal Deductions

    Deduct the higher of the standard deduction or itemized personal deductions. Itemized deductions consist of contributions, mortgage interest, certain taxes levied directly against the taxpayer, limited casualty and theft losses, limited medical expenses and certain “nonbusiness” expenses. The standard deduction for a single taxpayer for 1998 was $4,250.

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    Personal Income TaxTaxable Income



    One fixed amount (e.g., $2,700 for 1998)for taxpayer, one for spouse and one for each dependent. At certain levels of Adjusted Gross Income, personal exemptions are phased out.

    Taxable Income

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    Personal Income TaxSubtractions

    Types of Itemized Deductions

    • Certain taxes including real estate and state income tax

    • Interest on principal residence and any second residence

      No longer deductible on consumer loans

    • Charitable contributions to approved educational, religious and other not-for-profit organizations

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    Personal Income TaxSubtractions

    Types of Itemized Deductions

    • Medical expenses to the extent they exceed 7.5% of AdjustedGrossIncome

    • Casualty losses subject to certain complicated guidelines

      (Which you do not need to know)

    • Certain other deductions to the extent that they exceed 2% of AdjustedGrossIncome

      • e.g., professional journals, union dues, tax return preparation, business entertainment

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    Personal Income TaxSubtractions

    • Exemption - A reduction in taxable income because you “are” (i.e., you be).

    • Exemptions are also available for dependents.

    • Dependents must meet 4 criteria.

      • Close relative or effectively a family member

      • Had income < $2,150

        • The law makes exceptions for children under age 19 or full-time college students under age 24.

      • Got > half of support from taxpayer

      • Did not file a joint return with a spouse

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    Personal Income TaxSubtractions

    Your taxable income is understated. You cannotclaim Babe as an exemption!

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    Personal Income TaxRates

    Marginal Tax Rate - The rate applied to the next dollar of taxable income.

    • This relates to the fact that personal tax rates are graduated.

    • It means that while a single taxpayer with taxable income of $50,000 is in the “31% bracket”, he or she is taxed at that rate on only $700. (See Rate Schedule on p. 29)

    • It also means that the person who says “I don’t want more income this year because it will throw me into a higher tax bracket” doesn’t have a clue!

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    EffectiveTax Rate

    Total Taxes Paid Total Taxable Income


    Personal Income TaxRates

    Effective Tax Rate - The average rate of taxation on a given amount of taxable income.

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    Personal Income TaxRates Example

    Assume that a Tom (a single taxpayer) has taxable income of $63,000. Using the rate schedule in the handout, his tax liability, marginal tax rate and average tax rate would be determined as follows:

    Tax on income up to $49,300 $11,158Tax on income above $49,300 (31% x $13,700 [$63,000 - $49,300]) 4,247Tax Liability $15,405

    Marginal tax rate = 31%

    Average tax rate = $15,405/$63,000 = 24.5%

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    Taxes suck

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