Flexibility
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Flexibility. What is Joint Flexibility?. A description of the relative ROM allowed at a joint in different directions ROM: the angle through which a joint moves from anatomical position to the extreme limit of segment motion in a particular direction. Joint Flexibility .

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Flexibility

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Flexibility

Flexibility


What is joint flexibility

What is Joint Flexibility?

A description of the relative ROM allowed at a joint in different directions

ROM: the angle through which a joint moves from anatomical position to the extreme limit of segment motion in a particular direction.


Joint flexibility

Joint Flexibility

Range of motion is measured directionally from anatomical position (zero).


Static flexibility

Static Flexibility

An indicator of the relative tightness or laxity of a joint.

the ROM present when a body segment is passively moved (by an exercise partner or clinician)


Dynamic flexibility

Dynamic Flexibility

ROM achieved by virtue of muscle contraction


Factors that influence joint flexibility

Factors That Influence Joint Flexibility

Shape and Tightness


Shape of joint components

Shape of Joint Components

The articulating bone surface, muscle tissue or fat terminate movement at extreme ROM.


Tightness of muscle collagen

Tightness of Muscle & Collagen

Stretching increases extensibility of both tissues.

Lack of stretching significantly diminishes extensibility over time.

*Increased temperature increases flexibility of collagen.


Neuromuscular response joint flexibility

Neuromuscular Response & Joint Flexibility


Golgi tendon organs gto

Golgi Tendon Organs (GTO)

  • Sensory receptors that influence extensibility

  • Located in the muscle-tendon junction and in the tendons at both ends of muscles

  • Stimulated by tension produced by muscle contraction or passive muscle stretch

  • Inhibits tension in agonist muscle (promote relaxation) & initiate tension development in antagonists


Muscle spindles

Muscle Spindles

  • Sensory receptors that respond to:

    • amount of muscle (static response)

    • rate of muscle lengthening (dynamic response)

  • Muscle spindles will:

    • provoke reflex contractionin stretched muscle

    • inhibit tension inantagonists..


Comparison of

Comparison of:


Gto promotes relaxation muscle spindles inhibit stretch

GTO Promotes RelaxationMuscle Spindles Inhibit stretch

Therefore,

maximizing GTO &

minimizing the muscle spindle

increases joint flexibility.


Techniques for increasing joint flexibility

Techniques for increasing Joint Flexibility

Active & Passive Stretching

Ballistic & Static Stretching

PNF


Active stretching

Active Stretching

Produced by contraction of the antagonist muscles

Ex. Quadriceps contract so that hamstrings are stretched

Advantage: exercises muscle group used to develop force


Passive stretching

Passive Stretching

Produced by a force other than tension in the antagonist muscles

Ex. Gravitational force, force applied by another body segment or by another person.

Advantage: movement can be carried out father beyond the ROM


Static stretching

Static Stretching

Maintaining a slow, controlled, sustained stretch over time.

usually 20-30 seconds

Advantage: does not activate muscle spindle response that inhibits stretching


Ballistic stretching

Ballistic Stretching

Series of quick, bouncing-type stretches.

The potential for injuries is heightened due to activation of muscle spindle which inhibits stretching


Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation

ProprioceptiveNeuromuscular Facilitation

a group of stretching procedures involving alternating contraction and relaxation of the muscles being stretched


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