Skeletal system
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Skeletal System. Explain the structure of the bones. Analyze the function of the skeletal system Discuss characteristics and treatment of common skeletal disorders. 206 bones in the body "OSTEO" because that is the Greek word for bone "endo-" means within or into peri-" means around.

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Skeletal System

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Skeletal system

Skeletal System

Explain the structure of the bones.

Analyze the function of the skeletal system

Discuss characteristics and treatment of common skeletal disorders.

Skeletal system

  • 206 bones in the body

  • "OSTEO" because that is the Greek word for bone

  • "endo-" means within or into

  • peri-" means around

Skeletal system


  • Supports body and provides shape.

  • Protects internal organs.

  • Movement and anchorage of muscles.

  • Mineral storage. (Calcium and phorphorus)

  • Hemopoiesis

    1.White blood cells made in yellow marrow

    2.Red blood cells made in red marrow

Skeletal system

1) OSTEOCYTE – mature bone cell.

* . . . live inside the bone and have long branches which allow them to contact each other as well as the lining cells on the bone surface. * . . . are in a perfect position to sense any mechanical strain on the bone. * . . . can secrete growth factors which activate the lining cells or stimulate the osteoblasts. * Their exact role is still under investigation, but probably the osteocytes direct bone remodeling to accomodate mechanical strain and repair fatigue damage.

2) osteoblasts Bone-forming cells

are cuboidal and columnar in shape with a central nucleus found on the bone surface. .

*They come from bone marrow precursor cells.

*The job of osteoblasts is to make the proteins that will form the organic matrix of bone and to control mineralization of the bone *They have receptors for hormones such as vitamin D, estrogen, and parathyroid hormone. *They secrete factors that activate osteoclasts

3) osteoclasts  Cells that remove material to form the central cavity in a long bone

Bone formation


  • Week 8:  Every organ is in place, bones begin to replace cartilage, and fingerprints begin to form.  By the 8th week the baby can begin to hear.

  • Embryo skeletal starts as osteoblasts

  • (primitive embryonic cells) – then change to cartilage.

  • At 8 weeks, OSSIFICATION begins. (Mineral matter begins to replace cartilage)

  • Infant bones soft because

  • ossification not complete at birth.

  • FONTANEL - Soft spot on baby’s head

Structure of long bone


  • DIAPHYSIS – shaft

  • EPIPHYSES – ends

  • MEDULLARY CAVITY – center of shaft, filled with yellow bone marrow, which is mostly fat cells, also cells that form white blood cells.

  • ENDOSTEUM – lines marrow cavity

  • Shaft is made of COMPACT BONE –

  • ends are SPONGY BONE- cells form a network with spaces between area of bone. Light/strong.Ends contain red marrow where red blood cells are made.

  • PERIOSTEUM – tough, outside covering of bone – contains blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves. Ability to multiply, grow and repair.

Ossification the process by which embryonic cartilage is replaced with bone

ossification The process by which embryonic cartilage is replaced with bone.

Skeletal system

Articular Cartilage1. Thin layer covers the epiphysis2. Acts as a shock absorber when two bones meet to form a joint

Bone types

Bone Types

  • Bones are classified as –

  • long bones,

  • - short bones,

  • - flat bones,

  • - irregular bones

Skeletal system

Adult : Anterior View

Adult posterior view

Adult: Posterior View

Lateral view

Lateral View

Skeletal system


  • AXIAL – skull, spinal column, ribs, sternum, hyoid

  • APPENDICULAR – shoulder girdle, arms, pelvis, legs

Skeletal system


  • 2 nasal-sm bones bridge/nose

  • 1 vomer-nose,lower septum

  • 2 maxilla-form upper jaw

  • 2 zygomatic- cheek bones

  • 1 mandible-jaw/moves

  • 1 hyoid bone-U shaped bone in neck/holds tongue in place

  • 1 frontal-forehead

  • 2 parietal-sides

  • 2 temporal-tempels

  • 1 occipital-above neck

  • Sutures-immovable joints of skull

Spine vertebral column encloses the spinal cord

Spine – Vertebral ColumnEncloses the spinal cord

  • Vertebrae – separated by pads of cartilage = intervertebral discs

  • Cervical vertebrae (7)

    • Atlas-#1 YES

    • Axis #2 NO

  • Thoracic vertebrae (12)

  • Lumbar vertebrae (5)

  • Sacrum

  • Coccyx

Breakfast-7, Lunch-12, Supper-5

Vertebral column

Vertebral column

1.Encloses spinal cord

  • Separated by pads of cartilage

  • = intervertebral discs

Skeletal system

Ribs and Sternum

  • Sternum divided into 3 parts –

  • (1) Manubrium-upper portion

  • (2) Body-center

  • (3)tip is XIPHOID PROCESS

  • Attached to the vertebra on the dorsal side of the body

  • 12 pairs of Ribs – first 7 are true ribs – connected to sternum by cartilage

  • next 3 are false ribs – cartilage connects them to 7th rib (not sternum)

  • next 2 are floating

  • Did you know ?

  • Both sexes have an equal number of ribs, 24 to be exact.

Axial skeleton activity 10 groups draw and label fill the paper from edge to edge

Axial Skeleton Activity (10 groups)Draw and label (fill the paper from edge to edge)

  • Cranium/skull

  • Facial bones

  • Top 1/3 vertebra

  • Middle 1/3 vertebra

  • Bottom 1/3 vertebra

  • Sacrum and Coccyx

  • True Ribs

  • False Ribs/cartilage

  • Floating ribs

  • Sternum (3 parts)

Appendicular skeleton blue

Appendicular SkeletonBLUE

Shoulder girdle upper extremities

Shoulder Girdle & Upper Extremities

clavicle – (2) curved collar bones

scapula –(2) triangular shaped

shoulder blades

Permit attachment of muscles that help arms move/protect shoulders.

humerus – (2) upper arm

2nd largest bone in the body

radius- (2) lower arm, thumb side

ulna –(2) lower arm, pinky side

olecranan process-projection of ulna that forms elbow

site of nerve “Funny bone.”

Left lower arm appendicular

Left lower arm/Appendicular

  • Total of 27 bones ea hand

  • carpals –(8) wrist bones – held together by ligaments

  • metacarpals –(5) hand bones

  • phalanges –(14) fingers

  • Thumb most flexible,end of metacarpal is rounded and muscles attached from the hand. Can extend across palm

Pelvic girdle lower extremities

Pelvic Girdle /Lower Extremities

Pelvis – 3 bones (ilium, ischium, and pubis) next slide


femur – upper leg, longest and strongest bone in body

tibia – largest of two lower bones/anterior

fibula – lower leg bone/posterior

patella – kneecap/flat/ant. Females appears 2-3 yrs Males 6 yrs Ossifies at puberty.4 bursae surround and cushion knee joint

Anerior view pelvis

Anerior view pelvis

  • – 3 bones

  • ilium

  • ischium

  • pubis

  • Female pelvis

    wider/flatter for


Ankle and foot appendicular

Ankle and Foot/Appendicular

  • tarsal bones – ankle

  • calcaneus – heel bone

  • metatarsals – foot bones

  • Phalanges-14bones Distal, Middle, Proximal

Appendicular skeleton groups complete skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton (groups)complete skeleton

  • Shoulder Girdle

  • Upper/Lower Arms

  • Wrists/Hands

  • Pelvis

  • Upper/Lower Leg/Patella

  • Ankles/Heel/Feet

Bell ringer payday

Bell ringer/payday…

  • list the 3 divisions of the vertebral column

  • list the 3 divisions of the sternum

  • list the 3 divisions of the of the ribs

  • 4) Describe the difference in the AXIAL and the APPENDICULAR skeletal system.

Skeletal system


Kinds of Joints

  • Synarthroses-no movement

  • Ampiarthrosis-slight movement

  • Diarthrosis-free movement-most of joints of the body are this type.

  • **Read Text pp103-104, Joints & Related Structures.

Skeletal system


  • Joints are points of contact between 2 bones – classified according to movement:

  • SYNOVIAL FLUID – lubricating substance in joints

  • BALL AND SOCKET JOINT – bone with ball-shaped head fits into concave socket of 2nd bone. Shoulders and hips.

  • HINGE JOINTS – move in one direction or plane. Knees, elbows, outer joints of fingers.

  • PIVOT JOINT – those with an extension rotate on a 2nd, arch shaped bone. Radius and ulna, atlas and axis.

  • GLIDING JOINTS – flat surfaces glide across each other. Vertebrae of spine.

  • SUTURE – immovable joint. Skull.

Classified according to movement

Classified according to movement:

  • Most joints are Diarthrosis

Right knee joint anterior view

Right Knee Joint: Anterior View

Skeletal system


  • Supports body and provides shape.

  • Protects internal organs.

  • Movement and anchorage of muscles.

  • Mineral storage. (Calcium and phosphorus)

  • Hemopoiesis


Key terms of motion w joints

Key Terms of Motion w/Joints

  • Abduction-going away from midline

  • Adduction-going toward midline

  • Circumduction-all motions together

  • Extension-straightening

  • Flexion-bending

  • Pronation-palms down, feet extended

    American Crawl-Swimming

  • Supination-palms up, feet flexed-Back Crawl-Swimming

  • Rotation-pivot on axis

    C1-Yes, C2-No

Disorders of the skeletal system

Disorders of the Skeletal System

  • Arthritis

    • Osteoarthritis

      • What is the cause?

      • How is it treated?

      • Compare rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

Skeletal system


  • What causes Gout?

  • Which joint is most often


  • What other joints might be


  • How is gout treated?



  • Oste/o por/ous osis

  • What household object does osteoporosis remind you of?

  • What are the sxs?

  • What causes Osteoporosis?

  • Who is more at risk?

  • How is it treated?

1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system



-What causes it?

-Population most at risk?

  • How is rickets treated?

  • How does rickets impact a person’s healthy function?

  • Is this a health concern in the U.S.? Why/why not?

Normal legs

1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system

Abnormal spinal curvatures

Abnormal Spinal Curvatures

  • Kyphosis Lordosis Scoliosis

1.03 Understand the functions and disorders of the skeletal system

Skeletal system

Arthroplasty: (A) total hip replacement; (B) total knee replacement. A strong plastic called polyethylene takes the place of articular cartilage, preventing friction between bones.

Types of bone fractures

Types of Bone Fractures

Skeletal system

Disorders of the Bones and Joints

  • FRACTURE – a break

  • GREENSTICK – in children, bone bent and splintered but never completely separates

  • Treated by:

  • CLOSED REDUCTION – cast or splint applied

  • OPEN REDUCTION – surgical intervention with devices such as wires, metal plates or screws to hold the bones in alignment (internal fixation)

  • Traction…next slide



  • TRACTION – pulling force used to hold the bones in place – used for fractures of long bones

Skeletal disorders

Skeletal Disorders

  • ARTHROSCOPY – examination into joint using arthroscope with fiber optic lens, most knee and shoulder injuries treated with arthroscopy.

  • DISLOCATION – bone displaced from proper position in joint

  • SPRAIN – sudden or unusual motion, ligaments torn but joint not dislocated

  • STRAIN – overstretching or tearing muscle

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