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Plasmodial Slime Molds. Pl P 421/521. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/chromistasy.html. Ribosomal RNA phylogenies place slime molds as unrelated, early branching eurkaryote lineages . Baldauf and Doolittle, 1997. PNAS 94 (22): 12007-12012.

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http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/chromistasy.html

Ribosomal RNA phylogenies place slime molds as unrelated, early branching eurkaryote lineages


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Baldauf and Doolittle, 1997. PNAS 94 (22): 12007-12012

Actin, elongation factor, and β-tubulin phylogenies place the plasmodial and cellular slime molds as a monophyletic group close to Animal + FungI


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Classification

  • Mycetozoa = cellular, plasmodial slime molds plus protostelids

  • Cellular slime molds and protostelids now placed in phylum Myxomycota

  • Names imply a fungal-like affinity


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Myxomycota

  • Myxomycetes--5 orders, 13 families, 62 genera, 800 species

  • Characterized by plasmodium

    • Engulfs bacteria, fungal spores, small pieces of organic matter


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Physarum life cycle

meiosis

karyogamy

microcyst

Synchronous mitotic divisions

macrocyst


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Stages in Life Cycle

  • Spores (2nn)

    • 4-20 µm, pigmented ornamented; meiosis in spore = 4 nuclei; 3 degenerate


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Stages in Life Cycle

  • Myxamoebae (n)

    • feed, divide, convert to swarm cells, function as gametes; form microcysts under adverse conditions

www.uoguelph.ca/~gbarron/ MISCE2002/myxamo2.jpg


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Stages in Life Cycle

  • Swarm cells (n)

    • 1-4 anterior whiplash flagella, amoeboid posterior; feed (absorption and engulfment), function as gametes

    • can’t undergo cell division

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/wong/Bot201/Myxomycota/Swarm_Cells2.jpg


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Stages in Life Cycle

  • Zygote (2n)

    • Formed by fusion of myxamoebae or swarm cells; enlarges through synchronous nuclear division

  • Plasmodium (2n)

    • Multinucleate, wall-less protoplasm

Photo by Stephen Sharnoff

http://www.plant.uga.edu/mycology-herbarium/myxogal/Physros3.jpg


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Stages in Life Cycle

  • Sporophore (2n)

    • Entire plasmodium is converted into sporophore(s)

  • Sclerotium or macrocyst (2n)

    • Resistant stage formed by plasmodium


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Types of plasmodia

  • Phaneroplasmodium

    • Conspicuous, often colored, with protoplasm forming veins with reversible streaming

  • Aphanoplasmodium

    • With a network of fine, transparent threads and homogenous protoplasm

  • Protoplasmodium

    • Microscopic, with homogenous protoplasm, giving rise to one sporophore


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Sporophores

  • Mass of spores formed inside peridium, spores intermingled with:

    • Capillitium

      • threadlike, often ornamented

    • Elaters

      • Threadlike, ornamented, not connected at ends

    • Pseudocapillitium

      • Threads, bristles, membrane or platelike network

  • Lime may be present on peridium, stalk, columella or capillitium, or nodes of pseudocapillitum


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Capillitium (top left; photo by David Geiser)

Pseudocapillium (top right; photo from Fifth Kingdom)

Elaters (bottom left)

www.botany.hawaii.edu/.../Bot201/ Myxomycota/elaters.jpg


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Sporocarp—stalked or sessile

May have columella 


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Aethalium

  • Large, cushion-shaped sporophore, one per plasmodium


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Pseudoaethalium

  • Cluster of sporophores grouped tightly together

Photo by David Geiser


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Plasmodiocarp

  • Sporophore developing along veins of phaneroplasmodium; takes on reticulate shape of veins



Liceales pale or brown spores capillitium and lime absent pseudocapillitium may be present l.jpg
Liceales-- Pale or brown spores, capillitium and lime absent, pseudocapillitium may be present

Dictydium

Lycogala

Photo by Stephen Sharnoff


Trichiales pale spores yellow orange or red and abundant conspicuous capillitium l.jpg
Trichiales--Pale spores (yellow, orange or red) and abundant, conspicuous capillitium

Trichia

Arcyria


Physarales purplish brown spores usually with abundant and conspicuous lime on or in sporophore l.jpg
Physarales--Purplish-brown spores, usually with abundant and conspicuous lime on or in sporophore

Badhamia

Leocarpus

Fuligo


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Stemonitales--Violet-brown spores, lime absent conspicuous lime on or in sporophore

Lamproderma

Diachea


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Photo by Stephen Sharnoff conspicuous lime on or in sporophore

Stemonitis


Ceratiomyxales exosporous sporophores probably belongs in protostelids one genus ceratiomyxa l.jpg
Ceratiomyxales--Exosporous sporophores; probably belongs in protostelids (one genus, Ceratiomyxa)

Photo by Stephen Sharnoff

Photo by David Geiser


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Protostelids protostelids (one genus,

  • Simplest known slime molds

  • Discovered in 1970

    • Easily mistaken for mucoraceous fungi or deuteromycetes

  • In dead, attached plant parts, herbivore dung or soil; feed on bacteria, yeast and fungal spores

  • 14 genera and 32 species


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Protostelid Life Cycle protostelids (one genus,

  • Amoeboid cells (filose pseudopodia) become one or more prespore cells that rise on stalk and encyst to form one to four spores

  • Plasmodium and flagellated cells present in “complex” life cycles

  • Sexual reproduction not known


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Life cycle of simple protostelid protostelids (one genus,

http://comp.uark.edu/~fspiegel/protist.html#sporocarp%20morphology


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Life cycle of complex protostelid protostelids (one genus,

http://comp.uark.edu/~fspiegel/protist.html#sporocarp%20morphology



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