Vaccine preventable diseases
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Vaccine - Preventable Diseases. 1. Healthy People 2020 goal: Increase immunization rates and reduce preventable infectious diseases. Why We immunize. 2. Health promotion: prevent a disease if it is preventable. Morbidity vs Mortality Protect self Protect others Economics.

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Vaccine - Preventable Diseases

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Vaccine preventable diseases

Vaccine - Preventable Diseases

1

Healthy People 2020 goal:

  • Increase immunization rates and reduce preventable infectious diseases.


Why we immunize

Why We immunize

2

  • Health promotion: prevent a disease if it is preventable.

    • Morbidity vs Mortality

  • Protect self

  • Protect others

  • Economics


Immunizations contraindications

Immunizations: Contraindications

3

  • Anaphylactic reaction to previous vaccine

  • IPV: anaphylactic reaction to neomycin or streptomycin

  • MMR & Varicella

    • Immunocompromised

    • allergy gelatin, neomycin

    • Pregnancy

    • active Tb


Barriers to immunization

Barriers to Immunization

4

  • Complexity of the health care system

  • Expense

  • Parental misconceptions

  • Personal beliefs

  • Inaccurate record-keeping

  • Reluctance of health care workers to give > 2 vaccines at a time

  • Lack of public awareness


Complications of common infectious diseases viral

Complications of Common Infectious Diseases (viral)

5

  • Measles

  • Rubella, Fifth disease (parvovirus B19)

  • Roseola Infantum (HHV-6)

  • Mumps

  • Varicella

  • Pneumonia, otitis media, encephalitis

  • transmission to pregnant women

  • febrile seizures

  • aseptic meningitis, orchitis, deafness

  • secondary infection skin lesions; CNS, Reyes syndrome


Complications of common infectious diseases bacterial

Complications of Common Infectious Diseases (bacterial)

6

  • Pertussis

  • Diptheria

  • Hep B

  • Hib (Haemophilus Influenzae)

  • Pneumonia

  • Airway obstruction, myocarditis, neuritis

  • Liver cirrhosis, CA

  • Meningitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, septic arthritis, sepsis


Immunization schedule

Immunization Schedule

7

  • 2, 4, 6, (15) months

    • Hep B, DTaP, Hib, IPV, PCV

  • MMR, Varicella: after 12 mo**

  • NEW! Tdap 7th-12th grade

  • If miss one, do not need to start over

  • www.cdc.gov/nip


Biological terrorism

Biological Terrorism

8


Infectious diseases

Infectious Diseases

9

  • Primary prevention as intervention

    • Many diseases are vaccine-preventable

  • Secondary Intervention: treat symptoms

    • Rash

    • Fever

    • Itching

    • Secondary infection-try to prevent

  • Tertiary Intervention


Nursing care

Nursing Care

10

  • Risk for [spread of] infection

  • Ineffective Health Maintenance

  • Risk for ineffective thermoregulation

  • Fatigue r/t fever, discomfort

  • Social isolation r/t confinement


Impetigo

Impetigo


Impetigo interventions

Impetigo - Interventions

12

  • Soak crusts in warm water

  • Gently cleans w/antibacterial soap

  • Do not pick at lesions

  • Child & caregiver: handwashing

  • Fingernails short & clean

  • Topical antibiotic ointment

  • Communicable up to 48 hours after antibiotic treatment begun.


Cellulitis

Cellulitis

13

  • Inflammation of skin, SQ tissues

  • Local area is red, hot, swollen & painful

  • Regional lymph nodes often involved

  • Systemic effects: fever, chills, confusion, malaise


Cellulitis risk for spread of infection

Cellulitis: risk for spread of infection

14

  • Sepsis

  • Septic arthritis

  • Meningitis

  • Brain abscess

  • Blindness


Interventions cellulitis

Interventions: Cellulitis

15

  • Antibiotics

    • if hospitalized, IV

  • Entire course

  • Monitor temp

  • Warm compresses

  • Elevate affected limb

  • Bed rest - acute phase


Skin disorders other causes

Skin Disorders: other causes

16

  • Viral & Fungal

  • Contact

  • insect & animal contact


Pubic lice with nits

Pubic lice with nits

17


Common nursing diagnoses r t integumentary alterations

Common Nursing Diagnosesr/t integumentary alterations

18

  • Pain, acute r/t

  • Pruritis r/t reaction to irritants secondary to…

  • Impaired skin integrity r/t inflammation & scratching of lesions

  • Risk for secondary infection r/t altered skin integrity; scratching

  • Knowledge deficit regarding cause, treatment, spread of infection r/t lack of information.


Nursing diagnoses cont

Nursing Diagnoses: cont.

19

  • Risk for fluid volume deficit or nutritional deficit if lesions on mouth, tongue, etc.

  • Body image disturbance r/t altered appearance

  • Fatigue r/t fever

  • Social isolation


Hyperthermia vs fever

Hyperthermia vs Fever

20

  • Fever: results from an insult or disease that resets the body’s “set point”.

  • Hyperthermia: high body temperature


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