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An Explanation of the Comprehensive Emergency Management System and the role of Social Science in Developing Performance Measures to Achieve the Homeland Security Mission. May 5, 2010 Prepared By: Dan Catlett

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An Explanation of the Comprehensive Emergency Management Systemand the role of Social Sciencein Developing Performance Measures to Achieve the Homeland Security Mission

May 5, 2010

Prepared By: Dan Catlett

National Hurricane Program Manager


The Statutory FEMA Mission: Increase the Nation’s “Resilience” by Leading and Supporting the “Comprehensive Emergency Management System”

“Reduce the loss of life and property and protect the Nation from all hazards, including natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters, by leading and supporting the Nation in a risk-based,comprehensive emergency management systemofpreparedness, protection, response, recovery, andmitigation.”

-- BothPKEMRA and The FEMA Strategic Plan (February 2008)


The New FEMA Mission:

Support our Citizens and First Responders to “Build, Sustain and Improve our Capability.”

“FEMA’s mission is to support our citizens and first responders to ensure that as a nation we work together to build, sustain and improve our capability to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from and mitigate all hazards”

-- W. Craig Fugate, Administrator (6/17/09)


“Emergency Management”

PKEMRA Definition:

“(T)he governmental function that coordinates and integrates all activities necessary to build, sustain, and improve the capabilityto prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from, or mitigate against threatened or actual natural disasters, acts of terrorism, or other man-made disasters.”

-- The Post Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-295)


PKEMRA Definition: “Capability”

“The term ‘capability’ means the ability to provide the means to accomplish one or more tasks under specific conditions and to specific performance standards. A capability may be achieved with any combination of properly planned, organized, equipped, trained, and exercised personnel that achieves the intended outcome.”

-- The Post Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-295)


An alternative, SimplifiedDefinition of Emergency Management “Capability”:

Capability is the Operational Capacity(“the ability to provide the means to accomplish one or more tasks”)to manage the consequences or Riskfrom a hazard or threat(“under specific conditions”)to satisfy prevailing Expectationsor performance standards (“to specific performance standards.”)


The capability formula
The “Capability Formula”

EMC = OC – (R+X)

Emergency Management Capability

equals

Operational Capacity

minus the sum of

Risk plusExpectations


Definition of terms
Definition of Terms:

  • Operational Capacity = Personnel, Equipment, Facilities, Systems, Processes, Preparations, and the Readiness to use them.

  • Risk = Hazard (or “Threat”) x Vulnerability xConsequences(Note: This Goes A Step BeyondTraditional “Hazard Identification/Risk Assessment” or “HIRA”)

  • Expectations (or “Expectations Risk”)=

    • Internal: Employee and partner attitudes, beliefs and “conventional wisdom,” etc.);

    • External: Legislative priorities, academic, media “spin” and public perceptions, etc.; and

    • Formal: Measurable Strategic Outcomes and Outputs


Challenge 1
Challenge #1:

“Capability” cannot be effectively determined without a standardized determinations of Capacity, Risk or Expectations.”

Consequently

“Capacity” often gets measured, then labeled “Capability.”


Challenge 2
Challenge # 2:

Unity of Effort

is the product of

Unity of Purpose;

ACommon Operating Picture is the product of a

Common Planning Picture.


BOTH

Unity of Purpose

And a

Common Planning Picture.

are dependent on a common, consensus standards for assessing

Capacity, Riskand Expectations-based Capability


The solution
The Solution:

Standardized assessments of Capacity, Risk and Expectations – included the development of a “planning level event” – to create consistent planning assumptions (NOT planning formats/guidelines such as the TCL, the IPS, etc.) for the Comprehensive Emergency Management System


The “Risk-Based, Comprehensive Emergency Management System”

-- Post Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act (“PKEMRA” -- HR 5441, Sec. 503[b][1])

Decrease Risk (R)

Increase Operational Capacity (OC)

BUILD CAPABILITY

“Operational Readiness”

PRE-Event

Strategy Development & Process Planning

PREPARE

MITIGATE

EXERCISE or ACTUAL EVENT

RESPOND

RECOVER

PROTECT

(RE)ASSESSMENTS:Operational Capacity, Risk & Expectations

DEPLOY CAPABILITY

“Operational Response”

POST-Event


The “Risk-Based, Comprehensive Emergency Management System”

-- Post Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act (“PKEMRA” -- HR 5441, Sec. 503[b][1])

Decrease Risk (R)

Increase Operational Capacity (OC)

BUILD CAPABILITY:

“Operational Readiness”

Unity of PURPOSE

Common PLANNING Picture

PRE-Event

Strategy Development & Process Planning

PREPARE

MITIGATE

EXERCISE or ACTUAL EVENT

RESPOND

RECOVER

PROTECT

(RE)ASSESSMENTS:Operational Capacity, Risk & Expectations

DEPLOY CAPABILITY

“Operational Response”

Unity of EFFORT

Common OPERATING Picture

POST-Event


Increase Operational Capacity (OC) System”

Decrease Risk (R)

Permanently Reduce Riskfrom future eventsvia traditional Mitigationmeasures such as: Land Use and Building Regulation, Structural Retrofit, permanent risk reduction projects, etc.

IncreaseOperational Effectivenessvia traditional "Preparedness Cycle” Activities such as: Analyzing, Assessing, Planning, Training, Staffing, Equipping, etc.

PRE-Event

BUILD CAPABILITY

“Operational Readiness”

Strategy Development & Process Planning

PREPARE

MITIGATE

EXERCISE or ACTUAL EVENT

RESPOND

RECOVER

PROTECT

(RE)ASSESSMENTS: Capacity, Risk & Expectations

(RE)ASSESSMENTS:Operational Capacity, Risk & Expectations

DEPLOY CAPABILITY

“Operational Response”

POST-Event

Temporarily Reduce Riskin responseto a presentthreat via “Protective Actions” – Population Protection (i.e. evacuation, sheltering, SAR, etc.) as well as temporary risk reduction measures (shutters, sandbags, levee fortification, etc.)

SupplementOperational Capacityvia Response& RecoveryOperations, such as Mutual Aid, State Declaration, EMAC, and federal declaration (Stafford Act) through full National Response Framework utilization .


“SYSTEMATIC” System” CAPABILITY-BUILDING OVER TIME

= STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT & PROCESS PLANNING

S

- CAPABILITY+

PRE-EVENT

READINESS

S

S

S

E

E

E

POST-EVENT

OPERATIONS

- TIME +

= EXERCISE OR EVENT

E


“MULTI-HAZARD/EVENT” System” CAPABILITY-BUILDING

= STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT & PROCESS PLANNING

S

- CAPABILITY+

PRE-EVENT

READINESS

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

S

E

E

E

S

S

S

E

E

E

E

E

E

POST-EVENT

OPERATIONS

- TIME +

= EXERCISE OR EVENT

E


“SYSTEMATIC” System” CAPABILITY-BUILDING OVER TIME

= STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT & PROCESS PLANNING

S

- CAPABILITY+

PRE-EVENT

READINESS

S

S

S

E

E

E

POST-EVENT

OPERATIONS

- TIME +

= EXERCISE OR EVENT

E


= STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT & PROCESS PLANNING System”

S

CAPABILITY+

-

PRE-EVENT

Katrina

S

S

S

E

E

POST-EVENT

- TIME +

= EXERCISE OR EVENT

E


= STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT & PROCESS PLANNING System”

S

CAPABILITY+

-

PRE-EVENT

PKEMRA

Katrina

S

S

S

E

E

POST-EVENT

- TIME +

= EXERCISE OR EVENT

E


The Resilience Cycle System”

Build Resilience Through Preparedness

Build, Sustain or ImproveREADINESS

Build, Sustain or Improve RESISTANCE

PRE-Event

Strategy Development & Process Planning

INCIDENT or EVENT

WITHSTAND

The Impact

ADAPT

To “New Normal”

RECOVER

Community Functionality & Self-Sufficiency

RESPOND

To Emergency

and Crisis Conditions

POST-Event

Achieve Resilience Through Operations

Operations


The Resilience Cycle System”

Build Resilience Through Preparedness

Build, Sustain or ImprovePREPAREDNESS

Reduce Risk through MITIGATION

PRE-Event

BUILD CAPABILITY

Strategy Development & Process Planning

PREPARE

MITIGATE

INCIDENT or EVENT

S

E

RESPOND

RECOVER

PROTECT

PROTECT

Against The Impact

ADAPT

To The

“New Normal”

DEPLOY CAPABILITY

RECOVER

Community Functionality and Self-Sufficiency

RESPOND

To Emergency

and Crisis Conditions

POST-Event

Achieve Resilience Through Operations

Operations


The resilience formula
The System” “Resilience Formula”

Resilience (Z)

equals

Time To New Normal

Divided by the

Event

Z = TTNN ÷ E


RECOVERY System”

RESPONSE

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and “Resilience”


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