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Università degli studi di Pavia Laurea Specialistica Interfacoltà in Editoria e Comunicazione Multimediale (ECM). Il Web per tutti:. v erifica dell’accessibilità nei siti di telefonia mobile Tim, Vodafone e Wind. Relatore: Prof. Marco Porta Correlatore: Prof. Lidia Falomo. Tesi di

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Il web per tutti

Università degli studi di Pavia

Laurea Specialistica Interfacoltà in

Editoria e Comunicazione Multimediale (ECM)

Il Web per tutti:

verifica dell’accessibilità nei siti di telefonia mobile

Tim, Vodafone e Wind

Relatore: Prof. Marco Porta

Correlatore: Prof. Lidia Falomo

Tesi di

Eleonora Cernuschi


Accessibility a definition

Accessibility: a definition

“The art ofensuringthat, toaslargeanextentaspossible, facilities

(suchas, forexample, Web access) are availableto people whether or nottheyhaveimpairmentsofonesort or another”

Tim Berners Lee

“ Web accessibility means that people with disabilities can use the Web.

More specifically, Web accessibility means that people with disabilities can perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with the Web, and that they can contribute to the Web”

W3C


Disability

Disability

Source:

“La disabilità in Italia - Il quadro della statistica ufficiale” (Istat 2009)

In Italy, in the years 2004-2005,

people withdisabilities

wereabout 2,800,000

(5,1% of the wholepopulation)


Accessibility beneficiaries

Accessibility: beneficiaries

  • People withpermanentdisability (visual, auditive, motor, cognitive, neurologicalimpairments)

    Butnotonly…

  • Elderly people

  • Temporaryinvalids

  • People with low literacy or notfluent in the language

  • People with (Internet) low-bandwidth or using obsolete technologies

  • New and infrequent Web users


From wcag 1 0 to 2 0

From WCAG 1.0 to 2.0

WCAG 1.0

WCAG 2.0

  • 2 principles:

    • Ensuringgracefultransformation

    • Making content understandable and navigable

  • 14 guidelines

  • Checkpoints

    • Priority 1 (must) Level A

    • Priority 2 (might) Level AA

    • Priority 3 (may) Level AAA

  • 4 principles:

    • Perceivable

    • Operable

    • Understandable

    • Robust

  • 12 guidelines

  • Success criteria

    • Level A

    • Level AA

    • Level AAA


Italian regulation

Italianregulation

  • Law 4/2004 – “Disposizioni per favorire l’accesso dei soggetti disabili agli strumenti informatici” (Stanca Law)

    • Obstacles:

      • Public sectormembership

      • Existenceof a contract

      • Art. 8 of the ImplementationRegulationself-evaluation of the accessibility for public subjects

  • PDL 1226 (2006)

    Proposalformodification and improvement of 4/2004

    • Propose:

      • Independencefrom the contract

      • More checks on law enforcement


Studies of accessibility

Studies of Accessibility

Aim:

To verify, on the basis of WCAG 2.0, the implementation of these international regulations on the websites of the three major mobile phone companies operating in Italy


Tim pros and cons

Tim: pros and cons

Resizable text (butnot up to 200%)

 Useful input fields: clearlabel out of the field

 Too much content with not enough space between text lines

 Good contrast ratio between text (or images of text) colors and background


Il web per tutti

And more…

  • Text alternatives are provided for any non-text content

  • All functionalities are available from keyboard

  • Visible focus

  • Headings and labels clearly describe topic or purpose

  • CAPTCHA with alternative file audio link


Il web per tutti

And more…

  • Effectivetitles (“TIM.it: Tariffe, Chiavette,Telefonini, Assistenza e Servizi Mobili”)

  • Alternative language is not provided

  • HTML and CSS coding errors:

    • missing objects

    • end tags omitted

    • no unique ID

    • ..and more..

      57 errors only in the homepage…


Vodafone pros and cons

Vodafone: pros and cons

Insufficient contrast ratio between text and background colors in menu area (red/white)

Accessible site link

 Useful input fields: clearlabel in the field

 Too much content with not enough space between text lines


Il web per tutti

And more…

  • Text alternatives are provided for any non- text content

  • Good contrast ratio between text (or images of text) colors and background (except for white/red)

  • Headings and labels clearly describe topic or purpose

  • Effectivetitles (“ADSL internet, telefoni cellulari e offerte telefonia- Vodafone ”)

  • Only few functionality are available from keyboard

  • Invisible focus

  • No resizabletext


Il web per tutti

And more…

  • Alternative language is not provided

  • HTML and CSS coding errors :

    • missing objects

    • end tags omitted

    • no unique ID

    • ..and more...

      194 errors only in the homepage…


Vodafone pros and cons1

Vodafone: pros and cons

Insufficient contrast ratio between text and background colors in menu area (red/white)

 Glossary

Contentonlybased on text

Resizable text (butnot up to 200%)

 W3C certification (HTML 1.0, CSS, WCAG 1.0- level AAA)


And more

And more…

  • All functionalities are available from keyboard

  • Headings and labels clearly describe topic or purpose

  • HTML and CSS in conformity with W3C standards (HTML 1.0, CSS, WCAG 1.0- level AAA)

  • Color scheme and content organization customizable by the user (“Personalizzailsito”)


And more1

And more…

  • Enough space between paragraph but not enough between text lines

  • Absence of input field (provided in normal site): only informative content

    no interaction with the users

  • Alternative language is not provided


Wind pros and cons

Wind: pros and cons

Unuseful input field: label in the field

 Headings and labels clearly describe topic or purpose

 Low contrast ratio between text (or images of text) color and background

 Lesscontent in the homepage: less dispersive page


And more2

And more…

  • All functionalities are available from keyboard

  • Visible focus

  • Text alternatives are not provided for any non-text content (ex. box images)

  • No effective titles (only the name of the company without description of its activity)

  • No resizable text

  • Alternative language is not provided

  • Color scheme and content organization not customizable by the user


And more3

And more…

  • HTML and CSS coding errors:

    • missing objects

    • attribute "alt" not specified

    • end tags omitted

    • no unique ID

    • HTML language tag defines English but pages content is in Italian problem to screen reader

      <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"

      "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd" >

      <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">

      155 errors only in the homepage…


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • The analysis shows that, even leading companies do not properly consider web accessibility

  • As a consequence, a still large number of people afflicted with chronic or temporary disability are neglected

  • The compliance with accessibility rules would represent a significant advantage for many people and further development opportunities for companies. Accessibility should therefore be considered not as a plus, but as an essential synergy between social needs and development of companies (both public and private)


Il web per tutti

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