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Deviance. What is it?. Behavior that departs from societal or group norms Ranges from criminal behavior to wearing heavy make-up Deviance is a matter of social definition and can vary from group to group and society to society. 2 types. Negative deviance

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what is it
What is it?
  • Behavior that departs from societal or group norms
  • Ranges from criminal behavior to wearing heavy make-up
  • Deviance is a matter of social definition and can vary from group to group and society to society
2 types
2 types
  • Negative deviance
    • Involves behavior that fails to meet accepted norms
  • Positive deviance
    • Involves over conformity to norms leading to imbalance and extremes of perfectionism
      • anorexia
who is a deviant
Who is a deviant?
  • Someone who has violated one or more of society’s most highly valued norms
social control
Social Control
  • All societies have ways to promote order, stability, and predictability in social life
  • Def: ways to promote conformity to norms
  • If it were absent, there would be chaos
  • 2 types:
    • Internal
    • external
internal social control
Internal Social Control
  • Lies within the individual
  • Developed during the socialization process
  • When you know its wrong to steal, you have internalized this social norm
external social control
External Social Control
  • Socialization does not ensure that all people will conform to social norms
  • External social control is based on social sanctions
    • Rewards and punishments
  • Negative sanctions
    • Intended to stop socially unacceptable behavior
    • Criticism, fines and imprisonment
  • Positive sanctions
    • Encourage conformity
    • Allowances, promotions and smiles of approval
functionalism and deviance
Functionalism and Deviance
  • Functionalists believe that some deviance can contribute to the smooth operation of society
  • Deviance has both positive and negative consequences for society
negative effects
Negative Effects
  • Erodes trust
  • A society with widespread suspicion and distrust cannot function smoothly
  • If not punished or corrected, deviance can also cause nonconforming behavior in others
  • Stimulates more deviance in others
  • Expensive both in human resources and monetary resources
positive effects
Positive Effects
  • Clarifies norms by exercising social control to defend its values
  • Temporary safety valve
  • Increases unity within a society or group
  • Strengthens their commitment to that value
  • Promotes needed social change
strain theory
Strain Theory
  • Deviance is more likely to occur when a gap exists between cultural goals and the ability to achieve these goals by legitimate means
  • Anomie social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting or absent
  • Conformity- when people accept the goal and the means to achieve it
4 responses to strain considered deviant
4 responses to Strain considered deviant
  • Innovation
    • Accepts the goal of success but uses illegal means to achieve it
  • Ritualism
    • Rejects the goal (success) but continues to use the legitimate means
  • Retreatism
    • Deviant response in which both the legitimate means and approved goals are rejected
  • Rebellion
    • People reject both success and the approved means for achieving it
control theory
Control Theory
  • Conformity to social norms depends on the presence of strong bonds between individuals and society
  • If the bonds are weak (anomie) deviance occurs
  • Social bonds control the behavior of people
4 basic elements of social bonds
4 basic elements of social bonds
  • Attachment
    • The stronger your attachment to groups or individuals, the more likely you are to conform
  • Commitment
    • The greater your commitment to social goals, the more likely you are to conform
  • Involvement
    • Participation in approved social activities increase the probability of conformity
  • Belief
    • Belief in the norms and values promotes conformity
symbolic interactionism
Symbolic Interactionism
  • Deviance is transmitted through socialization in the same way that non-deviant behavior is learned
differential association theory
Differential Association Theory
  • Emphasizes the role of primary groups in transmitting deviance
  • i.e., the more people one is exposed to who break the law, the more apt they are to be criminals
3 characteristics
3 characteristics
  • The ratio of deviant to non-deviant individuals
  • Whether the deviant behavior is practiced by significant others
  • The age of exposure
labeling theory
Labeling Theory
  • Theory that society creates deviance by identifying particular members as deviant

**Deviant behavior is always a matter of social definition

  • Exists when some members of a group or society label others as deviants

** girls receive more stigma to teen pregnancy than boys

** lower-class youths are “expected” to be criminals while middle class youths are not

degrees of deviance
Degrees of Deviance?
  • 2 types
    • Primary deviance
      • Person engages only in isolated acts of deviance
    • Secondary deviance
      • Deviance as a lifestyle and a personal identity

**Person’s who life and identity are organized around deviance

      • This status overshadows all other status’
consequences of labeling
Consequences of Labeling
  • Can cause pain and suffering
  • Stigma- undesirable characteristic or label used by others
conflict theory and deviance
Conflict Theory and Deviance
  • Deviance in an industrial society is behavior that those in control see as threatening to their interests
  • Supporters of this theory believe that minorities receive unequal treatment in the American criminal justice system
why are minorities whites treated differently
Why are minorities & whites treated differently?
  • Minorities generally do not have the economic resources to buy good legal services
  • Crimes against whites tend to be punished more severely than crimes against minorities
  • Victim discounting reduces the seriousness of crimes directed at members of lower social classes
  • Therefore, if the victim is less valuable, the crime is less serious and the penalty less severe
white collar crime
White Collar Crime
  • Any crime committed by respectable and high status people in the course of their occupations
  • Economic crimes

** price fixing, insider trading, illegal rebates, embezzlement, bribery of a corporate customer, manufacture of hazardous products, toxic pollution and tax evasion

costs of white collar crime
Costs of white collar crime
  • 18x higher than street crime
  • That being said, white collar criminals are treated more leniently than other criminals
  • Convicted white collar criminals are less likely to be imprisoned
crime
Crime
  • Acts in violation of statue law
  • ** 2,800 acts are classified as federal crimes and many more violate state and local statutes
  • FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports is a major source of crime stats
    • This is voluntary

**UCS tracks 9 types of crimes: murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, arson and hate crimes

how reliable are the stats
How reliable are the stats?
  • Major strength: reporting system of experienced police officers
  • Major limitations:
    • See page 226
  • Another source: NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey
  • 2 advantages:
    • Helps make up for underreporting of crime
    • Surveys are more scientifically sound
juvenile crime
Juvenile Crime
  • Juvenile delinquent behavior includes deviance that only the young can commit
    • i.e., failing to attend school, underage drinking and smoking
  • Reached its lowest level in 1999
  • why?
    • Decline in the demand for crack cocaine
    • Crack gangs that provided guns to juv. have reached truces
    • Repeat violent juv. Offenders have been given stiffer sentences
    • Police are cracking down on illegal guns on the street
criminal justice system
Criminal Justice System
  • Made up of the institutions and processes responsible for enforcing criminal statues

*includes police, courts and correctional system

  • Draws on4 approaches to control and punish lawbreakers:
    • Deterrence
    • Retribution
    • Incarceration
    • Rehabilitation
deterrence
Deterrence
  • Uses the threat of punishment to discourage criminal actions
  • Does work if potential lawbreakers know 2 things
    • They are likely to get caught
    • Punishment will be severe
  • This is difficult in the US so punishment does not have the deterrent effect it could have
death penalty
**Death Penalty??
  • 66% of all Americans favor the death penalty
  • ¾ of all white Americans favor the death penalty
  • 40% of black Americans favor the death penalty
  • 52% of hispanic Americans favor the death penalty
retribution
Retribution
  • Type of punishment intended to make criminals pay compensation for their acts
    • Eye for an eye
incarceration
Incarceration
  • Keeping criminals in prisons
rehabilitation
Rehabilitation
  • Attempt to re-socialize criminals
  • 30-60% of those released from prisons are sent back in 2-5 years
  • Recidivism- repetition of or return to criminal behavior
alternatives to prisons
Alternatives to prisons
  • Combination of prison and probation
    • Serve part of their sentence in prison and the rest on probation
  • Community based programs
    • Reintroduce criminals into society
    • *get out of prison for part of the day
  • Diversion strategy
    • Aimed at preventing or reducing the offender’s involvement in the criminal justice system
    • Community based treatment program rather than a prison or probationary program
do they work
**Do they work?
  • They haven’t been evaluated enough to evaluate their effectiveness
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