Persuasion. You are feeling very sleeepy…. Bumper Stickers - “I’ll give up my gun when they pry it from my cold, dead hands.” Billboards - “Get U.S. out of the U.N.” Magazine Ads - “Think different” Television Ads - “Got Milk?”
You are feeling very sleeepy…
Bumper Stickers - “I’ll give up my gun when they pry it from my cold, dead hands.”
Billboards - “Get U.S. out of the U.N.”
Magazine Ads - “Think different”
Television Ads - “Got Milk?”
Radio Ads - “This program is brought to you by Exxon, working for a better environment”
T- shirts - “No Nukes”
Lawn Placards - “Vote for Kaine”
300 to 400 appeals/day from marketers alone
Homer Simpson’s Attitudes Toward Beer
"Homer no function beer well without."
“To alcohol, the cause of, and solution to, all of life's problems."
"The other day, I was so desperate for a beer, I snuck into the football stadium and ate the dirt under the bleachers."
- we are motivated to have harmony in our views and behaviors
- we want to agree with people we like a disagree with those we don’t
Think of someone you respect / like. What if they expressed an opinion you opposed?
Legalized abortionBalance TheoryBalanced Situations
Legalized abortionBalance TheoryImbalanced Situations
- we will work to resolve inconsistencies in our beliefs and actions when they matter to us
- changing a behavior can change an attitude (and vice versa)
Changes in attitudes occur primarily when we perceive justification – e.g., free will in determining our (inconsistent) actions
(Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959)
Attitude change happens when one freely performs an attitude-discrepant act for an inadequate reward.
Dissonance begins with:
More dissonance arises when the action or decision:
Dissonance is experienced as:
Dissonance is reduced through:
is seen as freely chosen.
actionor decision that conflicts w/ impt. aspect of self.
Can’t be justified as due to strong reward or threat
change designed to remove the unpleasant arousal.
produces negative consequences that were foreseeable
cannot be withdrawn
Individualist “me” focused
Collectivist group focused
Persuasion change in private attitude or belief as a result of receiving a message
Dual Process Model
- takes into account two ways attitude change takes place
- e.g., central vs. peripheral processing, systematic vs. heuristic processing, etc.
Certain information is processed more deeply than other info
Deep processing, focused on the quality of the message arguments.
High motivation and ability to think about the message
Lasting change that resists fading and counterattack
Temporary change that that is susceptible to fading and counterattack
Superficial processing, focused on surface features, e.g.: communicator’s attractiveness or number of arguments
Low motivationor ability to think about the message
Central or Peripheral?
Who says... game.”
By what means...
Who says? game.”
Who says? game.”
Agreement with the message game.”
Low personal relevance
High personal relevance
(Petty et al., 1981)
The Sleeper Effect game.”
% attitude change
(Hovland & Weiss, 1951)
What is said?
(Dabbs & Janis, 1965)
2. Extreme or moderate point of view? arouses emotion?
Discrepancy interacts with communicator credibility
(Aronson et al., 1963)
3. One-sided or Two-sided? The interaction of initial opinion with one- versus two-sidedness
(Hovland et al., 1949)
By What Means… opinion with one- versus two-sidedness
(Chaiken & Eagly, 1978)
(Cacioppo et al., 1973)