Persuasion
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Persuasion. You are feeling very sleeepy…. Bumper Stickers - “I’ll give up my gun when they pry it from my cold, dead hands.” Billboards - “Get U.S. out of the U.N.” Magazine Ads - “Think different” Television Ads - “Got Milk?”

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Persuasion

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Persuasion

Persuasion

You are feeling very sleeepy…


Persuasion

Bumper Stickers - “I’ll give up my gun when they pry it from my cold, dead hands.”

Billboards - “Get U.S. out of the U.N.”

Magazine Ads - “Think different”

Television Ads - “Got Milk?”

Radio Ads - “This program is brought to you by Exxon, working for a better environment”

T- shirts - “No Nukes”

Lawn Placards - “Vote for Kaine”

Mailings, etc.

300 to 400 appeals/day from marketers alone


Martin luther king jr

Martin Luther King, Jr.


National rifle association

National Rifle Association


What are attitudes

What are attitudes?

  • ABCs of attitudes

    • Affective: evaluations are based on positive and negative emotions associated with a target

    • Behavioral: a behavioral tendency to act in a certain manner towards the attitude object

    • Cognitive: evaluations based on beliefs & facts


Persuasion

"Mmmmm... Gummi Beer."

Affective

Evaluation

Beer

Homer Simpson’s Attitudes Toward Beer

Homer’s

Attitude

Toward Beer

"Homer no function beer well without."

Behavior

Regarding Beer

Cognitions

Regarding

Beer

“To alcohol, the cause of, and solution to, all of life's problems."

"The other day, I was so desperate for a beer, I snuck into the football stadium and ate the dirt under the bleachers."


Consistency in persuasion

Consistency in persuasion

  • Balance theory (Heider)

    - we are motivated to have harmony in our views and behaviors

    - we want to agree with people we like a disagree with those we don’t

    Think of someone you respect / like. What if they expressed an opinion you opposed?

    • Could change your feelings for the person

    • Could change your opinion on the issue


Persuasion

If you like Tiger, shouldn’t you like the car?


Balance theory balanced situations

Michelle

Michelle

Michelle

Teacher

Teacher

Teacher

-

+

+

-

Michelle

Teacher

+

+

-

-

+

+

-

-

Legalized abortion

Legalized abortion

Legalized abortion

Legalized abortion

Balance TheoryBalanced Situations


Balance theory imbalanced situations

Michelle

Michelle

Michelle

Teacher

Teacher

Teacher

-

-

+

+

Michelle

Teacher

-

+

+

-

+

+

-

-

Legalized abortion

Legalized abortion

Legalized abortion

Legalized abortion

Balance TheoryImbalanced Situations


Consistency in persuasion1

Consistency in persuasion

  • Cognitive dissonance theory

    - we will work to resolve inconsistencies in our beliefs and actions when they matter to us

    - changing a behavior can change an attitude (and vice versa)

    Changes in attitudes occur primarily when we perceive justification – e.g., free will in determining our (inconsistent) actions


Ready to turn some pegs

Ready to turn some pegs??

  • Students spent hour turning pegs in holes (really boring)

  • Paid either $1 or $20

  • Who enjoyed the task more (when asked later)?

  • Why $1 people  $20 was justification enough, $1 wasn’t – I must have really liked turning pegs!

(Festinger & Carlsmith, 1959)


Persuasion

Insufficient justification

Attitude change happens when one freely performs an attitude-discrepant act for an inadequate reward.


Persuasion

Initiation

Amplification

Motivation

Reduction

Dissonance begins with:

More dissonance arises when the action or decision:

Dissonance is experienced as:

Dissonance is reduced through:

is seen as freely chosen.

actionor decision that conflicts w/ impt. aspect of self.

Can’t be justified as due to strong reward or threat

unpleasant arousal.

change designed to remove the unpleasant arousal.

produces negative consequences that were foreseeable

cannot be withdrawn


What affects how consistent we are

What affects how consistent we are?

  • Arousal

    • Tranquilizers cause people to not change their opinions

  • Preference for consistency

  • Consequences

    • More impact of your behavior = more likely you will be to change your attitudes

  • Salience of inconsistency


Consistent with what

Consistent with what?

Individualist  “me” focused

Collectivist  group focused


Persuasion

Persuasion change in private attitude or belief as a result of receiving a message

Dual Process Model

- takes into account two ways attitude change takes place

- e.g., central vs. peripheral processing, systematic vs. heuristic processing, etc.

Certain information is processed more deeply than other info


Persuasion

Persuasion Attempt

Audience Factors

Processing Approach

Persuasion Outcome

Deep processing, focused on the quality of the message arguments.

High motivation and ability to think about the message

Lasting change that resists fading and counterattack

Message

Temporary change that that is susceptible to fading and counterattack

Superficial processing, focused on surface features, e.g.: communicator’s attractiveness or number of arguments

Low motivationor ability to think about the message


Persuasion

“Retirement planning can be a way to stay ahead of the game.”

Cris Carter

Schwab Investor

Central or Peripheral?


Persuasion

Who says...

What...

By what means...

To whom?

  • Channel

  • spoken

  • written

  • audio

  • Video

  • Communicator

  • Credibility

    • expertise

    • trustworthiness

  • Attractiveness

  • Message content

  • Reason vs. emotion

  • Discrepancy

  • One vs. two-sided

  • Audience

  • Need for Cognition


Persuasion

Who says?

  • Communicator

  • Credibility

    • expertise

    • trustworthiness

  • Attractiveness

  • Credibility: believability

    • expertise: the amount of knowledge the source is assumed to have

    • trustworthiness: the perceived intention of the communicator to deceive.

  • Perceived expertise

    • Begin by saying things the audience agrees with

    • Be introduced as someone knowledgeable on the topic

    • Speak confidently (no stuttering), and quickly


Class demonstration

Class Demonstration

  • Message on Phosphate containing detergents

    • Source

      • Government Agency

      • Soap Company


Persuasion

Who says?

  • Attractiveness:

    • having qualities that appeal to an audience

      • physical appeal

      • likeability

      • perceived similarity

        • surface characteristics (Dembroski and others, 1978)

        • attitudes & values

    • Persuasive on matters of subjective preference (e.g., aspirin, soft drinks)

  • Communicator characteristics less relevant when the subject matter is important to participants


Persuasion

Agreement with the message

Low personal relevance

High personal relevance

(Petty et al., 1981)


Persuasion

The Sleeper Effect

Expert source

% attitude change

Nonexpert source

Time interval

(Hovland & Weiss, 1951)


Persuasion

  • Message content

  • Reason vs. emotion

  • Discrepancy

  • One vs. two-sided

What is said?

  • Is a carefully reasoned message more persuasive, or one that arouses emotion?

  • Will you be more persuasive by advocating an extreme point of view, or by advocating a moderate position?

  • Should your message be one-sided, or should it acknowledge two points of view?


Persuasion

  • Is a carefully reasoned message more persuasive, or one that arouses emotion?

(Dabbs & Janis, 1965)


Fear and persuasion

Fear and Persuasion

  • http://www.comedycentral.com/shows/the_daily_show/videos/stephen_colbert/index.jhtml?playVideo=12615


Persuasion

2. Extreme or moderate point of view?

Discrepancy interacts with communicator credibility

Opinion change

Discrepancy

(Aronson et al., 1963)


Persuasion

3. One-sided or Two-sided? The interaction of initial opinion with one- versus two-sidedness

Opinion change

The message

(Hovland et al., 1949)


Persuasion

By What Means…

Opinion change

  • Channel

  • spoken

  • written

  • audio

  • Video

Channel type

(Chaiken & Eagly, 1978)


Persuasion

  • Audience

  • Need for Cognition

To Whom?

(Cacioppo et al., 1973)


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