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Prehľad časov v anglickom jazyku gramatická príručka pre študentov religionistiky FF PU

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Prehľad časov v anglickom jazyku gramatická príručka pre študentov religionistiky FF PU - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Vypracoval: Tomáš Buchala. Prehľad časov v anglickom jazyku gramatická príručka pre študentov religionistiky FF PU. Present simple and continuous. Present simple. Present continuous. is used to express a habit I get up at six . a fact which is always true

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present simple and continuous
Present simple and continuous

Present simple

Present continuous

  • is used to express a habit

I get up at six.

  • a fact which is always true

Vegetarians don´t eat meat.

Water freezes at 0 C.

  • a fact which is true for long time

I live in LM and she works in a bank.

  • often used with adverbs of frequency:

always, often, sometimes,hardly ever, never, every Sunday, once a month, three times a year, once in a blue moon, etc.

  • We use for activities happening

at the time of speakingoraroundthe time of speaking

I am having breakfast now.

She is reading a book by Steinback.

  • a planned future arrangement:

I´m meeting him at five.

What are you doing this evening?

He is not traveling today.

  • changig/developing situation

Our English is getting better and better.

present perfect
Present perfect

simple

continuous

  • expresses what has happened before now, action happened at not definite time in the past

I have met a lot of famous people.

  • action can continue to the present and probabbly to the future:

She has lived here for 20 years.

  • an experience of sb.´s life

Have you ever been to the U.S?

She has never been to the U.S.

  • expressions used with present perfect: since, for, ever, never, always, recently, just, yet, already, this year, today, etc

I have lived there since I finished school.

Has the postman been yet?

I have already had breakfast this mornig.

  • activity which began in the past and continues to the present

We have been waiting for hours.

It has been raining for all week.

  • activity with result now

She doesn´t have any money, she has been shopping.

  • frequently used with:

How long, for, since

Note that you can say:

How long have you worked here?

How long have you been working here?

past simple and past continuous
Past simple and past continuous

past simple

past continuous

  • we use past simple for activities that finished at certain time in the past in general

I did it yesterday.

We did not play tennis last Sunday.

What did you do yesterday?

  • a senquence of finished events in chronological order

I took out the key, opened the door and walked in.

  • actions as simple facts

I did not watch TV last night.

  • expressions used with simple past:

last year, last month, ago, yesterday, in 1996, on Monday, when, etc

  • we use for activities that took some time in the past

I was doing it yesterday at 10 o´clock.

You were making a lot of noise last night.

  • to talk about temporary situations or actions in progress

He was living in South Africa at the time.

  • expressions used with continuous: while, as, at, when

I woke up when the sun was shining.

What were you doing at 10 yesterday?

I was doing my homework while she was cooking.

past perfect
Past perfect

simple

continuous

  • an action in the past which happened before another action in the past

When I got home, John had cooked a meal. /John cooked a meal before I got home/

  • expressions: before, because, when

What did you do after you had finished?

  • sentences are perhaps

not in chronological order:

I was tired, because I had been working hard last week. /1-work.2-tired/

She did not pass the exam, although she had been studying for three days.

future
Future

will

going to

perfect future

  • a future decision or spontanious reactionmade at the moment of speaking

-Which one do you want?

-I will take the red one, thanks.

  • future prediction and promise

I will travel round the world when I retire.

  • to express an offer, request, threats

Will you help me?

Will you do sth. for me?

I wiil meet you at the station.

  • used for future intentions, made before the time of speaking

I am going to Greece for holiday.

  • some time in future/prediction based on a firm evidence:

The vase is going to fall.

It is certainly not going to snow all week.

  • action which will be finished BY or before

a certain time in future

I will have saved a million by the year 2020.

This time next week she will have finished her exams.

Present continuous

  • a planned future arrangement

I´m staying in the hotel for a day.

What are you doing this evening?

compare
Compare

simple

continuous

  • simple is used when the action is complete and the final result is important

I have run six kilometres.

I have written three letters this morning.

  • Continuous is used when the activity /not the result/ is important. We are interested how someone has spent time:

I am hot, because I have been running.

She has been writing letters all day.

  • state verbs do not express action /never use –ing/

love, hate, like, prefer, want, need,

believe, understand, know, forget, mean, demand, remember, agree recommend, consist, contain, depend.

see, hear, smell, taste

have for possession, think for opinion

  • Examples

This parfume smells too strong.

I have known Alice for 14 years.

Not: I have been knowing…

I think it´s a good idea.

But: I have been thinking about that for some time.

check your grammar
Check your grammar!

Exercise: Write true sentences about you

  • An activity true around now
  • An activity with the result now
  • An activity from a day before yesterday
  • A future intention
  • A future arrangement
  • An action finished by 2020
  • A habit of yours
  • A “state verb” sentence
  • See for more: R.Murphy, Grammar in use Intermediate, OUP 2005
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