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Digestion in Animals – Part 1. All Living things get food somehow. Most unicellular organisms, like bacteria, secrete enzymes and absorb nutrients. However, In the Protist Kingdom, unicellular organisms are very specialized to obtain food. Ingestive heterotrophs or autotrophs. Amoeba.

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All living things get food somehow
All Living things get food somehow

  • Most unicellular organisms, like bacteria, secrete enzymes and absorb nutrients.

  • However, In the Protist Kingdom, unicellular organisms are very specialized to obtain food.

    • Ingestive heterotrophs or autotrophs





Fungi kingdom
Fungi Kingdom

  • Secrete enzymes then absorb nutrients – decomposers. Absorptive Heterotrophs


Animal kingdom
Animal Kingdom

  • There is an increasingly complex system that allows animals to obtain nutrients from food.

  • Ingestive heterotrophs



Simple animals have simple methods of getting and using food
Simple animals have simple methods of getting and using food material)!

  • Porifera: filter feeder – no digestive system

Water & waste

amebocyte

Collar cell

Epidermal cell

Water & food

flagellum

Collar cell

Spicule

Incurrent pore

food

nucleus


Phylum cnidaria formerly called coelenterata
Phylum Cnidaria material)!(formerly called Coelenterata)

  • All have stinging cells (cnidocytes)

  • Two body forms:

    • Medusa – like a jelly fish

    • Polyp – like a hydra

  • Radial symmetry

  • Have tentacles


Cnidarian cnidocyte
Cnidarian Cnidocyte material)!

Have you ever been stung by jellyfish?


Cnidarian life cycle medusa and polyp alternate
Cnidarian Life Cycle – medusa and polyp alternate material)!

medusa

polyp

egg

larva



Hydra material)!

Hydroid

Polyp body form



Hydra anatomy
Hydra Anatomy material)!

mouth

tentacles

testis

bud

Gastrovascular

cavity

ovary

Basal disc


Digestion in cnidarians material)! Extracellular – occurs In gastrovascular cavity - enzymes are released from cells lining cavity and food is digested within the cavity. - Nutrients are absorbed by cells in cavity and waste is expelled out the mouth (yuch!).


Coral is actually a colony of polyps, most of which are the size of a single hydra – they just make a case around them for their home.


Here are a variety of anemones – polyp body form size of a single hydra – they just make a case around them for their home.


Phylum platyhelminthes
Phylum - Platyhelminthes size of a single hydra – they just make a case around them for their home.

  • Have flat bodies

  • Some are parasitic

  • Most are free-living


These are free-living flatworms size of a single hydra – they just make a case around them for their home.

Planaria


Tapeworms – the ultimate parasite – the only highly developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

Digestion– absorbs host’s already digested food.

Scolex – head with hooks and suckers


Phylum nematoda roundworms
Phylum Nematoda - roundworms developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

  • Body rounded

  • Tube-within-a-tube body format

  • Mouth – digestive tube – anus –more efficient – can have specialized organs along the way

  • Most free-living

  • Some parasitic


Look like threads developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

in the microscope


Some are parasitic to humans

Hookworm developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

Enters through soles of feet

Larvae in human feces

Causes fatigue – may cause physical and mental retardation if children have it

Trichina

From undercooked pork

Causes severe muscle aches when larvae migrate from intestine to muscles

Some are parasitic to humans

  • Filaria

    • Causes elephantiasis

    • No treatment

    • Carried by mosquitoes


This developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditiclesion is caused by a nematode infestation


Elephantiasis developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

  • Caused by filaria – the worm blocks the lympatic vessels and the area swells with lymph.

  • No treatment is available

  • (except amputation)


Phylum annelida
Phylum Annelida developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

  • Segmented worms

  • Includes earthworms and leeches

  • Most are free-living

  • Complex body with organ systems

  • hermaphroditic


Leech Earthworm developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

Eats dirt

Eats blood


Earthworm anatomy
Earthworm developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditicAnatomy


Earthworm eats dirt
Earthworm eats dirt developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

  • Pathway of food :

    Mouth pharynx esophagus crop gizzard intestine anus

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7

6

1

5

4

3

2


Earthworm help the environment by
Earthworm help the environment by: developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

  • Adding nutrients to soil

  • Aerating soil

  • Helping get rid of dead organic matter


Phylum mollusca
Phylum Mollusca developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

  • Soft-bodied animals

  • All have the same kind of larva

  • Three types

    • Gastropods – stomach-footed

      • Snails and slugs

    • Cephalopods – head-footed

      • Octopus and squid

    • Pelecypods – hatchet-footed

      • Clams, mussels, oysters, scallops


snail developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

slug

squid

clam

octopus

slug


Digestion in mollusks
Digestion in Mollusks developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

Clams:

Mucus-feeders

Trap food in

Mucus on gills

Then swallows

Both food and

mucus




Phylum echinodermata
Phylum Echinodermata eat them

  • Spiny skinned animal

    • Starfish

    • Sand dollar

    • Sea cucumber

  • Turn stomach inside out to eat – stomach gives off digestive juices and the digested mess is swallowed along with the stomach when it is brought back into the body.

  • Radial symmetry – no head, tail, front or back

  • Move using tube feet – part of water vascular system



Phylum arthropoda
Phylum Arthropoda eat them

  • Jointed legs

  • Chitinous exoskeleton

  • Ventral nerve cord

  • Must molt to grow

  • Some undergo metamorphosis

  • Includes insects, crustaceans, spiders, millipedes and centipedes, and horseshoe crabs


Class insecta
Class Insecta eat them

  • Six legs

  • May have wings

  • Undergo metamorphosis

  • Varied mouthparts

  • Breathe using spiracles


Some common insects
Some common insects eat them

Some of these are insects, some are not….

Can you tell which is which?


Class arachnida 8 legs no antennae simple eyes chelicerae
Class Arachnida – eat them8 legs, no antennae, simple eyes, chelicerae,

scorpion

tick

Dust mites

spiders


Class crustacea two body regions cephalothorax most live in water
Class Crustacea – eat themtwo body regions = cephalothoraxmost live in water



The end

The end eat them

The end


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