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Digestion in Animals – Part 1. All Living things get food somehow. Most unicellular organisms, like bacteria, secrete enzymes and absorb nutrients. However, In the Protist Kingdom, unicellular organisms are very specialized to obtain food. Ingestive heterotrophs or autotrophs. Amoeba.

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all living things get food somehow
All Living things get food somehow
  • Most unicellular organisms, like bacteria, secrete enzymes and absorb nutrients.
  • However, In the Protist Kingdom, unicellular organisms are very specialized to obtain food.
    • Ingestive heterotrophs or autotrophs
fungi kingdom
Fungi Kingdom
  • Secrete enzymes then absorb nutrients – decomposers. Absorptive Heterotrophs
animal kingdom
Animal Kingdom
  • There is an increasingly complex system that allows animals to obtain nutrients from food.
  • Ingestive heterotrophs
simple animals have simple methods of getting and using food
Simple animals have simple methods of getting and using food
  • Porifera: filter feeder – no digestive system

Water & waste

amebocyte

Collar cell

Epidermal cell

Water & food

flagellum

Collar cell

Spicule

Incurrent pore

food

nucleus

phylum cnidaria formerly called coelenterata
Phylum Cnidaria (formerly called Coelenterata)
  • All have stinging cells (cnidocytes)
  • Two body forms:
    • Medusa – like a jelly fish
    • Polyp – like a hydra
  • Radial symmetry
  • Have tentacles
cnidarian cnidocyte
Cnidarian Cnidocyte

Have you ever been stung by jellyfish?

slide14

Hydra

Hydroid

Polyp body form

hydra anatomy
Hydra Anatomy

mouth

tentacles

testis

bud

Gastrovascular

cavity

ovary

Basal disc

slide17

Digestion in cnidarians Extracellular – occurs In gastrovascular cavity - enzymes are released from cells lining cavity and food is digested within the cavity. - Nutrients are absorbed by cells in cavity and waste is expelled out the mouth (yuch!).

slide18

Coral is actually a colony of polyps, most of which are the size of a single hydra – they just make a case around them for their home.

phylum platyhelminthes
Phylum - Platyhelminthes
  • Have flat bodies
  • Some are parasitic
  • Most are free-living
slide22

Tapeworms – the ultimate parasite – the only highly developed system is its reproductive system – hermaphroditic

Digestion– absorbs host’s already digested food.

Scolex – head with hooks and suckers

phylum nematoda roundworms
Phylum Nematoda - roundworms
  • Body rounded
  • Tube-within-a-tube body format
  • Mouth – digestive tube – anus –more efficient – can have specialized organs along the way
  • Most free-living
  • Some parasitic
slide24

Look like threads

in the microscope

some are parasitic to humans
Hookworm

Enters through soles of feet

Larvae in human feces

Causes fatigue – may cause physical and mental retardation if children have it

Trichina

From undercooked pork

Causes severe muscle aches when larvae migrate from intestine to muscles

Some are parasitic to humans
  • Filaria
    • Causes elephantiasis
    • No treatment
    • Carried by mosquitoes
slide27

Elephantiasis

  • Caused by filaria – the worm blocks the lympatic vessels and the area swells with lymph.
  • No treatment is available
  • (except amputation)
phylum annelida
Phylum Annelida
  • Segmented worms
  • Includes earthworms and leeches
  • Most are free-living
  • Complex body with organ systems
  • hermaphroditic
slide29

Leech Earthworm

Eats dirt

Eats blood

earthworm eats dirt
Earthworm eats dirt
  • Pathway of food :

Mouth pharynx esophagus crop gizzard intestine anus

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7

6

1

5

4

3

2

earthworm help the environment by
Earthworm help the environment by:
  • Adding nutrients to soil
  • Aerating soil
  • Helping get rid of dead organic matter
phylum mollusca
Phylum Mollusca
  • Soft-bodied animals
  • All have the same kind of larva
  • Three types
    • Gastropods – stomach-footed
      • Snails and slugs
    • Cephalopods – head-footed
      • Octopus and squid
    • Pelecypods – hatchet-footed
      • Clams, mussels, oysters, scallops
slide34

snail

slug

squid

clam

octopus

slug

digestion in mollusks
Digestion in Mollusks

Clams:

Mucus-feeders

Trap food in

Mucus on gills

Then swallows

Both food and

mucus

phylum echinodermata
Phylum Echinodermata
  • Spiny skinned animal
    • Starfish
    • Sand dollar
    • Sea cucumber
  • Turn stomach inside out to eat – stomach gives off digestive juices and the digested mess is swallowed along with the stomach when it is brought back into the body.
  • Radial symmetry – no head, tail, front or back
  • Move using tube feet – part of water vascular system
phylum arthropoda
Phylum Arthropoda
  • Jointed legs
  • Chitinous exoskeleton
  • Ventral nerve cord
  • Must molt to grow
  • Some undergo metamorphosis
  • Includes insects, crustaceans, spiders, millipedes and centipedes, and horseshoe crabs
class insecta
Class Insecta
  • Six legs
  • May have wings
  • Undergo metamorphosis
  • Varied mouthparts
  • Breathe using spiracles
some common insects
Some common insects

Some of these are insects, some are not….

Can you tell which is which?

class arachnida 8 legs no antennae simple eyes chelicerae
Class Arachnida – 8 legs, no antennae, simple eyes, chelicerae,

scorpion

tick

Dust mites

spiders

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