Reliability Analysis of Self  efficacy and Locus of Control for Students  with Mild Disabilities

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Reliability Analysis of Self efficacy and Locus of Control for Students with Mild Disabilities

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1. Reliability Analysis of Self efficacy and Locus of Control for Students with Mild Disabilities Thomas J. Simmons, University of Louisville Yvonne A. Niemann, Georgetown College Stephen K. Miller, Western Kentucky University

2. University of Louisville & Jefferson County Public Schools GOAL: Transition to employment, post-secondary education, and independent living

3. POPULATION 109 students (MMD, BD, & LD) at risk of dropping out free/reduced lunch status six different high schools all participated in STEP Intervention, one to three years involvement 50 answered a follow-up survey and had parent permission to be in this study

4. Demographics Personal Identity Ethnicity: 38 White, 12 Black Gender: 26 Male, 24 Female Disability: MMD 5 BD 5 LD 40

5. PERSONALITY MEASURES Self-efficacy Scales (General and Social) Sherer, M., Maddux, J. E., Mercandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R. W. (1982). The Self-efficacy Scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51, 663-671. Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale Nowicki, S., Jr., & Strickland, B. R. (1973). A Locus of Control Scale for children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40, 148-154.

6. Effects of personality development are well documented on a variety of populations and content areas. Findings of research typically not extended to special education students. Special education students noted for lower self-efficacy and lessened locus of control. YET--- NO VALIDATION OR RELIABILITY FOUND FOR TWO TESTS USED

7. MEDIATING FACTORS Self-efficacy ScaleGeneral & Social a belief that ones actions will have an impact and will positively affect ones future (Sherer, Maddux, Mercandante, Prentice-Dunn, Jacobs, & Rogers, 1982)

8. RELIABILITY Self-efficacyGeneral Composite 3.49, Cronbachs alpha .640 Adjusted by omitting Q. 12 and computing with 16 items instead of 17 for new alpha of .719 (p > .07 for exploratory research, Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994 )

9. Table 1 Descriptive Statistics and Reliability for Self-efficacy (General) Scale (N = 50) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item M SD Min Max R a - d _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Q2 4.12 .983 1 5 4 .631 Q3 3.26 1.337 1 5 4 .641 Q4 4.24 .960 1 5 4 .607 Q7 2.92 1.383 1 5 4 .632 Q8 3.70 1.233 1 5 4 .603 Q11 3.10 1.147 1 5 4 .638 Q12 2.22 1.166 1 4 3 .719 Q15 3.76 1.170 1 5 4 .596 Q16 3.72 1.144 1 5 4 .617 Q18 3.46 1.199 1 5 4 .627 Q20 3.28 1.196 1 5 4 .605 Q22 3.18 1.257 1 5 4 .625 Q23 3.84 1.076 1 5 4 .590 Q26 3.18 1.395 1 5 4 .602 Q27 3.64 1.225 1 5 4 .661 Q29 4.10 1.200 1 5 4 .599 Q30 3.54 1.328 1 5 4 .607 Composite 3.49 .464 1 4.94 3.94 .640a ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note. Min = Minimum; Max = Maximum; R = Range; a - d = alpha with item deleted. avalue for composite for a - d is Cronbachs coefficient alpha for overall scale.

10. RELIABILITY Self-efficacySocial Composite 3.48, Cronbachs alpha .589 Adjusted by omitting Q. 14 and computing with 5 items instead of 6 for new alpha of .760

11. Table 2 Descriptive Statistics and Reliability for Self-efficacy (Social) Scale (N = 50) _____________________________________________________________________________ Item M SD Min Max R a - d _____________________________________________________________________________ Q6 3.76 1.519 1 5 4 .372 Q10 3.36 1.242 1 5 4 .364 Q14 3.04 1.385 1 5 4 .589 Q19 3.52 1.093 1 5 4 .384 Q24 3.40 1.278 1 5 4 .425 Q28 3.82 .983 1 5 4 .313 Composite 3.48 .657 1 5 4 .461a _____________________________________________________________________________ Note. Min = Minimum; Max = Maximum; R = Range; a - d = alpha with item deleted. aValue for composite a - d is Cronbachs coefficient alpha for overall scale.

12. MEDIATING FACTORS Locus of Control Scale A belief that the power to effect change comes from within oneself Internal means the person believes s/he can control how issues affect them. External suggests belief that outside forces control ones life. (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973)

13. RELIABILITY Locus of Control Composite .39, Cronbachs alpha .719 Adjusted by replacing missing items with means for each question 39% of students were External

14. Table 3 Descriptive Statistics and Reliability for Locus of Control Scale (N = 50) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item M S Min Max R a - d ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Q1 .29 .452 0 1 1 .707 Q2 .72 .454 0 1 1 .721 Q3 .60 .484 0 1 1 .707 Q4 .06 .240 0 1 1 .716 Q5 .64 .485 0 1 1 .703 Q6 .10 .303 0 1 1 .713 Q7 .28 .454 0 1 1 .708 Q8 .38 .476 0 1 1 .732 Q9 .49 .500 0 1 1 .712 Q10 .48 .494 0 1 1 .722 Q11 .52 .484 0 1 1 .709 Q12 .50 .505 0 1 1 .706 Q13 .29 .452 0 1 1 .721 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (table continues)

15. Table 3. (continued) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item M SD Min Max R a - d ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Q14 .48 .494 0 1 1 .711 Q15 .20 .404 0 1 1 .715 Q16 .37 .482 0 1 1 .705 Q17 .42 .499 0 1 1 .712 Q18 .37 .482 0 1 1 .719 Q19 .44 .491 0 1 1 .707 Q20 .18 .388 0 1 1 .721 Q21 .56 .501 0 1 1 .702 Q22 .22 .419 0 1 1 .719 Q23 .32 .457 0 1 1 .714 Q24 .57 .495 0 1 1 .709 Q25 .35 .476 0 1 1 .720 Q26 .14 .350 0 1 1 .714 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (table continues)

16. Table 3. (continued) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item M SD Min Max R a - d ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Q27 .50 .495 0 1 1 .709 Q28 .31 .461 0 1 1 .717 Q29 .51 .500 0 1 1 .706 Q30 .33 .469 0 1 1 .726 Q31 .48 .594 0 1 1 .719 Q32 .23 .417 0 1 1 .717 Q33 .35 .476 0 1 1 .719 Q34 .63 .479 0 1 1 .713 Q35 .31 .460 0 1 1 .705 Q36 .45 .497 0 1 1 .714 Q37 .12 .328 0 1 1 .711 Q38 .80 .404 0 1 1 .732 Q39 .45 .487 0 1 1 .709 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (table continues)

17. Table 3. (continued) _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Item M SD Min Max R a - d _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Q40 .11 .302 0 1 1 .717 Composite .39 .464 0 1 1 .719a _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note. Min = Minimum; Max = Maximum; R = Range; a - d = alpha with item deleted. avalue for composite for a - d is Cronbachs coefficient alpha for overall scale.

18. RESULTS Self-efficacy (General & Social) Scales are not acceptable for use with students with mild disabilities without modification. Locus of Control Scale was barely acceptable. MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED to see if tests are adequate to use with this population. MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED to use these measures with students with LD, BD, and MMD

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