Reliability Analysis of Self  efficacy and Locus of Control for Students  with Mild Disabilities

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Reliability Analysis of Self efficacy and Locus of Control for Students with Mild Disabilities

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1. Reliability Analysis of Self –efficacy and Locus of Control for Students with Mild Disabilities Thomas J. Simmons, University of Louisville Yvonne A. Niemann, Georgetown College Stephen K. Miller, Western Kentucky University

2. University of Louisville & Jefferson County Public Schools GOAL: Transition to employment, post-secondary education, and independent living

3. POPULATION 109 students (MMD, BD, & LD) at risk of dropping out free/reduced lunch status six different high schools all participated in STEP Intervention, one to three years involvement 50 answered a follow-up survey and had parent permission to be in this study

4. Demographics Personal Identity Ethnicity: 38 White, 12 Black Gender: 26 Male, 24 Female Disability: MMD – 5 BD – 5 LD – 40

5. PERSONALITY MEASURES Self-efficacy Scales (General and Social) Sherer, M., Maddux, J. E., Mercandante, B., Prentice-Dunn, S., Jacobs, B., & Rogers, R. W. (1982). The Self-efficacy Scale: Construction and validation. Psychological Reports, 51, 663-671. Nowicki-Strickland Locus of Control Scale Nowicki, S., Jr., & Strickland, B. R. (1973). A Locus of Control Scale for children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 40, 148-154.

6. Effects of personality development are well documented on a variety of populations and content areas. Findings of research typically not extended to special education students. Special education students noted for lower self-efficacy and lessened locus of control. YET--- NO VALIDATION OR RELIABILITY FOUND FOR TWO TESTS USED

7. MEDIATING FACTORS Self-efficacy Scale—General & Social …a belief that one’s actions will have an impact and will positively affect one’s future (Sherer, Maddux, Mercandante, Prentice-Dunn, Jacobs, & Rogers, 1982)

8. RELIABILITY Self-efficacy—General Composite 3.49, Cronbach’s alpha .640 Adjusted by omitting Q. 12 and computing with 16 items instead of 17 for new alpha of .719 (p > .07 for exploratory research, Nunnally and Bernstein, 1994 )

9. Table 1 Descriptive Statistics and Reliability for Self-efficacy (General) Scale (N = 50) _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________   Item M SD Min Max R a - d _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________   Q2 4.12 .983 1 5 4 .631   Q3 3.26 1.337 1 5 4 .641   Q4 4.24 .960 1 5 4 .607   Q7 2.92 1.383 1 5 4 .632   Q8 3.70 1.233 1 5 4 .603   Q11 3.10 1.147 1 5 4 .638   Q12 2.22 1.166 1 4 3 .719   Q15 3.76 1.170 1 5 4 .596   Q16 3.72 1.144 1 5 4 .617   Q18 3.46 1.199 1 5 4 .627   Q20 3.28 1.196 1 5 4 .605   Q22 3.18 1.257 1 5 4 .625   Q23 3.84 1.076 1 5 4 .590   Q26 3.18 1.395 1 5 4 .602   Q27 3.64 1.225 1 5 4 .661   Q29 4.10 1.200 1 5 4 .599   Q30 3.54 1.328 1 5 4 .607   Composite 3.49 .464 1 4.94 3.94 .640a ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note. Min = Minimum; Max = Maximum; R = Range; a - d = alpha with item deleted. avalue for composite for a - d is Cronbach’s coefficient alpha for overall scale.

10. RELIABILITY Self-efficacy—Social Composite 3.48, Cronbach’s alpha .589 Adjusted by omitting Q. 14 and computing with 5 items instead of 6 for new alpha of .760

11. Table 2 Descriptive Statistics and Reliability for Self-efficacy (Social) Scale (N = 50) _____________________________________________________________________________   Item M SD Min Max R a - d _____________________________________________________________________________   Q6 3.76 1.519 1 5 4 .372   Q10 3.36 1.242 1 5 4 .364   Q14 3.04 1.385 1 5 4 .589   Q19 3.52 1.093 1 5 4 .384   Q24 3.40 1.278 1 5 4 .425   Q28 3.82 .983 1 5 4 .313   Composite 3.48 .657 1 5 4 .461a _____________________________________________________________________________ Note. Min = Minimum; Max = Maximum; R = Range; a - d = alpha with item deleted. aValue for composite a - d is Cronbach’s coefficient alpha for overall scale.

12. MEDIATING FACTORS Locus of Control Scale …A belief that the power to effect change comes from within oneself Internal means the person believes s/he can control how issues affect them. External suggests belief that outside forces control one’s life. (Nowicki & Strickland, 1973)

13. RELIABILITY Locus of Control Composite .39, Cronbach’s alpha .719 Adjusted by replacing missing items with means for each question 39% of students were “External”

14. Table 3 Descriptive Statistics and Reliability for Locus of Control Scale (N = 50) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   Item M S Min Max R a - d ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   Q1 .29 .452 0 1 1 .707   Q2 .72 .454 0 1 1 .721   Q3 .60 .484 0 1 1 .707   Q4 .06 .240 0 1 1 .716   Q5 .64 .485 0 1 1 .703   Q6 .10 .303 0 1 1 .713   Q7 .28 .454 0 1 1 .708   Q8 .38 .476 0 1 1 .732   Q9 .49 .500 0 1 1 .712   Q10 .48 .494 0 1 1 .722   Q11 .52 .484 0 1 1 .709   Q12 .50 .505 0 1 1 .706   Q13 .29 .452 0 1 1 .721 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (table continues)

15. Table 3. (continued) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   Item M SD Min Max R a - d ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  Q14 .48 .494 0 1 1 .711   Q15 .20 .404 0 1 1 .715   Q16 .37 .482 0 1 1 .705   Q17 .42 .499 0 1 1 .712   Q18 .37 .482 0 1 1 .719   Q19 .44 .491 0 1 1 .707 Q20 .18 .388 0 1 1 .721   Q21 .56 .501 0 1 1 .702   Q22 .22 .419 0 1 1 .719   Q23 .32 .457 0 1 1 .714   Q24 .57 .495 0 1 1 .709   Q25 .35 .476 0 1 1 .720   Q26 .14 .350 0 1 1 .714  ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (table continues)

16. Table 3. (continued) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________   Item M SD Min Max R a - d ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Q27 .50 .495 0 1 1 .709   Q28 .31 .461 0 1 1 .717   Q29 .51 .500 0 1 1 .706   Q30 .33 .469 0 1 1 .726   Q31 .48 .594 0 1 1 .719   Q32 .23 .417 0 1 1 .717   Q33 .35 .476 0 1 1 .719   Q34 .63 .479 0 1 1 .713   Q35 .31 .460 0 1 1 .705   Q36 .45 .497 0 1 1 .714   Q37 .12 .328 0 1 1 .711   Q38 .80 .404 0 1 1 .732   Q39 .45 .487 0 1 1 .709 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (table continues)

17. Table 3. (continued) _____________________________________________________________________________________________________   Item M SD Min Max R a - d _____________________________________________________________________________________________________   Q40 .11 .302 0 1 1 .717   Composite .39 .464 0 1 1 .719a _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note. Min = Minimum; Max = Maximum; R = Range; a - d = alpha with item deleted. avalue for composite for a - d is Cronbach’s coefficient alpha for overall scale.  

18. RESULTS Self-efficacy (General & Social) Scales are not acceptable for use with students with mild disabilities without modification. Locus of Control Scale was barely acceptable. MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED to see if tests are adequate to use with this population. MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED to use these measures with students with LD, BD, and MMD

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