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Individuals. ESC 556 week 4. Indiviudal. Basic unit Individuals vary in their conditions Asexual reproduction. Unitary vs. Modular organisms. Unitary organisms Determined form Form and sequence Modular organisms Units that can produce similar units Sessile Plants – leaves & flowers

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individuals

Individuals

ESC 556 week 4

indiviudal
Indiviudal
  • Basic unit
  • Individuals vary in their conditions
  • Asexual reproduction
unitary vs modular organisms
Unitary vs. Modular organisms
  • Unitary organisms
    • Determined form
    • Form and sequence
  • Modular organisms
    • Units that can produce similar units
    • Sessile
    • Plants – leaves & flowers
    • Genet
    • Much greater variation
    • Time sequences apply to each module
    • Death results from external factors
ecological physiology
Ecological Physiology
  • Internal adjustments to external changes
    • Resist/tolerate
    • Regulation & Adaptation
    • Migration
  • A lot of different environments
  • Homeostasis – sea to freshwater & land
  • Conformation & regulation
  • Eury vs. steno
  • Poikilo vs. homoio
  • Ectotherms vs. endotherms
resistance and tolerance
Resistance and Tolerance
  • Stress response
  • Response curve
  • Individual differences
  • Tolerance vs. resistance
    • Deserts, arctic/antarctic, wavy shores
deserts
DESERTS
  • Low densities of life and biodiversity
  • Dry / daily temperature fluctuations
  • Conserve water and control temperature
  • Xerophytes
  • Seeds at dry periods
  • Allelopathy
  • Animals – small & active at night
    • Snakes & Lizards
    • Metabolic water
    • Insulation
    • Tolerant of dehydration and body temperature fluctuations
adaptation
adaptation
  • Evolutionary changes over time
    • Survive competition & complex environmental variables
  • Long vs. short term adaptation (acclimatization)
metabolic rate
METABOLIC rate
  • Amount of energy used per unit time
  • Growth, reproduction, body maintenance, locomotion
  • Metabolic rates vary
  • Basal metabolic rate vs. daily energy expenditure
  • Life style and body size
    • Ectotherms – poikilothermic
    • Endotherms – homoiothermic
    • 25-30 X
metabolic rate1
METABOLIC rate
  • Body size
  • Large organisms
  • Relative to their body mass
metabolic rate2
METABOLIC rate
  • Ectotherm strategy – Low energy system
    • Low resting metabolic rate, torpor, serpentine shapes
    • Very abundant and diverse
  • Endotherms – High energy system
    • Independent of environmental conditions
    • Foraging at night, inhabiting high latitudes
    • Lower production efficiency
  • Assimilation efficiency
    • 20-90%
  • Respiration, growth & reproduction
  • Growth & reproduction efficiency
locomotion
Locomotion
  • Inertia & drag
  • Reynolds number
  • Aquatic organisms
      • Locomotory activity
      • Reduction in sinking rates – spines/body extensions
behaviour
behaviour
  • Survive and reproduce
    • obtain food, avoid predation, find mates & resources
  • Respond by growth (plants) or locomotion (animals)
  • Energetic consequences and requirements
sedentary or mobile
Sedentary or mobile
  • Sessile organisms
    • Low energy but risky
    • Protective mechanisms
    • Tolerating environmental conditions or stable habitat selection
    • Food capture indirect
    • Sexual reproduction difficult
    • Dispersal at any life stage
  • Mobile organisms
    • Escape mechanisms
    • Taxic behaviour & dispersal
    • Food search
    • Sexual reproduction easier
    • Dispersal at any life stage
behavioral mechanisms
Behavioral mechanisms
  • Response to biotic and abiotic stimuli
  • Growth – sexual reproduction
  • Costs and benefits
  • Plants
    • No nervous system – chemical coordination
    • Tropisms
      • Phototropism, geotropisms
    • Nasties
      • Non-directional movements of part of a plant
dispersal and migration
dIspersal and migration
  • Passive vs. active dispersal
  • Individual activities  population level consequences
  • Seasonal, diurnal or tidal cycles effects
  • Migration: movement of groups of individuals
  • Key points
    • Minimize intraspecific competition
    • Colonize new niches
    • Response to variation in conditions and resources
avoidance and dispersal
Avoidance and dispersal
  • Avoid competition between future generations and parents
  • Adverse conditions, resource limitations, competition
  • Spatial avoidance
  • Temporal avoidance
    • Diapause
    • Hibernation
    • Aestivation
    • Migration
behavioral mechanisms1
Behavioral mechanisms
  • Animals
    • Nervous system
    • Chemical responses
    • Innate behaviours
      • Genetically-based – taxes, kineses & instinctive behaviour
    • Learned behaviour – habituation & conditioning
    • Imprinting
    • Feeding behaviour
    • Social behaviour – e.g. altruism
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Genetic material transfer from parental generation to progeny
  • Asexual
    • Single parent
    • Mitosis - Clones
    • Mutation
  • Types
    • Fission
    • Sporulation
    • Budding
    • Fragmentation
    • Vegetative propagation
reproduction1
reproduction
  • Sexual Reproduction
  • Two parents
  • Fusion of haploid gametes
  • Energetically costly
    • Broadcast fertilization
  • Meiosis
    • Recombination
  • Advantages
  • Variation
    • Sperm & ova vs. + & -
    • Dioecious
    • Hermaphrodites
    • Parthenogenesis
life cycles and life history strategy
Life Cycles and Life history strategy
  • Zygote of one generation to the next
  • Alternation of generations
  • Sporophyte and gametophyte generations
life cycles and life history strategy3
Life Cycles and Life history strategy
  • Life history
    • Growth, differentiation, reproduction
    • Abiotic and biotic interactions
  • Evolutionary processes
  • Plasticity
  • Size
  • Growth & Development Rates
  • Reproduction
  • Storage mechanisms
  • Dormancy
slide25
Size
  • Species, individuals, life stages
  • Advantages of increased size
    • Higher competitive ability  reproductive success
    • Increase success as a predator
    • Decrease predation risk
    • Reduced surface:volume ratio
      • Better homeostatic control
      • Bergmans’s rule
  • Disadvantages of increased size
    • Preferred food items
    • Greater energy requirement
growth and development rates
Growth and Development Rates
  • Development: differentiation of morphological and physiological processes
  • Development vs. growth
  • Different rates and strategies of development
    • Early
    • Arrested
reproduction2
Reproduction
  • Diverse strategies
reproduction3
reproduction
  • Iteroparous vs. semelparous reproduction
  • Method of fertilization & parental care
    • Broadcast fertilization
    • Copulation
storage mechanisms
Storage Mechanisms
  • Irregular supply of resources
  • Accumulation during abundance
  • Fats, starch, glucose
  • Food stores
dormancy
Dormancy
  • Periods of adversity
  • Minimal metabolic activity
  • Facultative vs. obligate
  • Forms
    • Resting spores or buds
    • Diapause
    • Hibernation
    • Aestivation
  • Resistant external coat
  • Synchorinization
    • Predictive vs. consequential strategies
feeding strategies and mechanisms1
Feeding strategies and mechanisms
  • Photoautotrophs
    • Light
    • Nutrients
    • Water
    • Carbon Dioxide
  • Terrestrial plants
    • Water & Nutrients
  • Aquatic plankton
    • Light & Nutrients
  • Insectivorous plants & nitrogen fixing nodules (legumes)
  • Photoheterotrophs
feeding strategies and mechanisms2
Feeding strategies and mechanisms
  • Heterotrophs
    • Holozoic
    • Symbiotic
    • Parasitic
  • Feeder types
    • Microphagous
    • Macrophagous
    • Fluid feeders
    • Saprophytes
symbiotic nutrition
Symbiotic nutrition
  • Mutualism
    • Corals
    • Ruminant mammals
  • Commensalism
parasitic nutrition
ParasitiC Nutrition
  • Ectoparasites & Endoparasites
  • Obligate vs. facultative
microphagous feeders
MicrophagousFeeders
  • Pseudopodia & food vacuoles
  • Cilia
  • Filter feeders
    • Setose/ciliary mechanisms
macrophagous feeders
MacrophagousFeeders
  • Scraping & boring
  • Tentacular
  • Whole ingestion
  • Biting and chewing
  • Detritus
fluid feeders
Fluid feeders
  • Sucking – proboscis
  • Piercing & sucking
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