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Year Of the Frog PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Year Of the Frog. What Is an Amphibian?. Vertebrate Animal with a backbone Cold-Blooded Use their surroundings to warm up or cool down Amphibian = 2 Lives 1 st in the water--breathing with gills Lay eggs → hatch → metamorphose 2 nd on land--breathing with lungs.

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Year Of the Frog

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Year

Of the

Frog


What Is an Amphibian?

  • Vertebrate

    • Animal with a backbone

  • Cold-Blooded

    • Use their surroundings to warm up or cool down

  • Amphibian = 2 Lives

    • 1st in the water--breathing with gills

      • Lay eggs→hatch→metamorphose

    • 2nd on land--breathing with lungs


What is an Amphibian?

  • Frogs and Toads

  • Newts and Salamanders


Where do Frogs Live?

  • Rivers and streams

  • Lakes, ponds and marshes

  • Grasslands

  • Forests


Global Amphibian Distribution

  • 6,307 species of amphibians world-wide


63 species of amphibians in Texas

42 species of frogs and toads

4 species threatened

1 species endangered

1 extirpated

About 30 species of salamanders

6 species threatened

2 species endangered

Frogs in Texas


Smooth or slimy skin

Strong long legs with webbed feet for jumping and leaping

Lay eggs in clusters

A Group of frogs is called

An ARMY of frogs

Warty and dry skin

Stubby bodies with short hind legs for hopping

Lay eggs in chains

A Group of toads is called

A KNOT of toads

Frogs vs. Toads


What do Frogs Eat?

  • Frogs are Carnivores

    • Carnivores eat other animals

    • Frogs eat

      • Insects

      • Snails

      • Spiders

      • Worms

      • Small fish

      • Other small aquatic and terrestrial animals


Life Cycle

Lay Eggs

Adult

Tadpoles

Metamorphs


Respiration

  • Frogs can breath through their skin

    That’s why their skin needs to be moist!!


Why are they Important?

  • An important part of the Ecosystem

    • They eat insects and other small animals and other animals eat them

  • Provide Benefits to Humans

    • Source of Medicine

    • Control insects and insect-borne diseases

  • Indicators of Environmental Health

    • Permeable skin can absorb and concentrate toxins making them sensitive to environmental changes

  • Role in Culture and Religion


What’s Happening to Frogs?

  • 32% of the world’s amphibian species are threatened with extinction.

  • Up to 122 species may have gone extinct since 1980.

  • At least 43% of all species are declining in population size.


Why?


Habitat Loss

  • Ponds and wetlands are being filled in to use the land for other purposes

  • Rainforests are being cut down to create land for farming and ranching

  • Habitat is being destroyed to build roads and buildings


Habitat Fragmentation

  • Habitat fragmentation is the breaking apart of habitat in smaller pieces.

  • Once they leave their pond, frogs and toads may travel across land to many different habitats to eat or hibernate.

  • However, if a large road or a town is built, then the frogs may not be able to travel back to a pond to lay their eggs.

  • No eggs→no new frogs!


Pollution

  • Rain can wash chemicals and pollutants into streams, ponds, rivers and lakes.

  • The chemicals don’t only pollute the water but also seep into a frog’s skin.

  • These chemicals can affect tadpole development and behavior, development of male frogs, and the number of tadpoles produced.


Disease

  • Chytrid Fungus

    • A fungus that is believed to slowly suffocate frogs by attacking the skin through which they breathe

    • The chytrid fungus is spreading rapidly and affecting amphibians worldwide.

  • Malformations

    • Frogs that have extra or missing limbs

    • Caused by…

      • Genetics

      • Parasite disruption of limb formation

      • Chemical contamination

      • Viruses

      • Ultraviolet radiation

      • Physical trauma (from predators or people)

American bullfrog found in

San Marcos River


Climate Change

  • Climate change is a big buzz in our society today. But how will it really affect frogs?

  • It can change the amount and timing of rain events

    • If rains don’t come at the right time, then frogs might not be able to breed

  • It can change temperatures

    • Temperature changes can also affect breeding and development of young

  • The golden toad in Costa Rica is

    thought to have become extinct

    because of climate change


What can You do?

  • Watch out for frogs!

    • Become familiar with frogs in your area

    • Use pesticides carefully and sparingly

    • Create frog habitat in your yard

    • Keep cats and dogs away from amphibians

    • Be wise in your use of water and fossil fuels so that amphibians and the rest of us will have good habitats in the future!


Get Involved!!

Participate in a Leap Year activity at a local zoo or aquarium.

www.aza.org/Promotions/LeapDay_TX/

Participate in the National Wildlife Federation’s “Record the Ribbit” on May 3.

www.nwf.org/ribbit

Contact Texas Parks and Wildlife to become a citizen scientist through Texas Amphibian Watch.

You can become an Amphibian Spotter

You can Adopt-a-Frog Pond

Listen to frogs at night

Check for frogs with malformations

www.tpwd.state.tx.us/amphibians/

What else can YOU do?


Sources

A Thousand

Friends

of Frogs


Image Acknowledgements

  • Slide 1

  • Clockwise from left top corner:

  • Horned Marsupial Frog - Tania Boniske

  • Magnificent Tree Frog - Kevin Johnson

  • Dendrobates tinctorius - Richard Gibson

  • Strawberry Poison Frog - Joe Milmoe

  • Dyeing Poison Arrow Frog - Gerry Marantelli

  • Lemur Leaf Frog - Ron Holt

  • Red-eyed Tree Frog - Ron Holt

  • Cacao Robber Frog - Miravilis Swarovsky

  • Grainy Cochran Frog - Ron Holt

  • Dainty TreeFrog - Lydia Fucsko

  • Slide 2

  • Morrocan Toad - Kevin Johnson

  • Tigar Salamander - Hoberg

  • Two-toned Poison Frog - Joe Milmoe

  • Slide 3

  • Newt – Amphibian Ark

  • others – Herps of Texas

  • http://www.zo.utexas.edu/research/txherps/

  • Slide 4

  • River, Prairie and pond – TPWD

  • Forest – Amphibian Ark

  • Marsh – Texas Coastal Wetlands

  • Slide 5

  • www.GlobalAmphibians.org

  • Slide 6

  • Herps of Texas

  • Slide 7

  • Green and Golden Bell Frog - Lydia Fucsko

  • Common Toad - Richard Gibson

  • Common Frog spawn - Aleksander Niwelinski

  • Common Toad spawn - Eugene Bruins

  • Slide 8

  • Frog eating spider – Amphibian Ark

  • Little Water Frog Eating a bird - Aleksander Niwelinski

  • Slide 9 (order they appear)

  • Common Toad - Richard Gibson

  • Common Toad - Eugene Bruins

  • Red-eyed Tree Frog, eggs - Ron Holt

  • Common Toad, Tadpoles - Aleksander Niwelinski

  • Southern Brown Tree Frog tadpoles, feeding - Lydia Fucsko

  • Marbled Treefrog, Larvae - Ron Holt

  • Slide 10

  • www.thefrog.org

  • Slide 11

  • Amphibian Ark

  • Slide 12

  • Panamanian Golden Frog – GerryMarantelli

  • Red-eyed Tree Frog - Ron Holt

  • La Palma Glass Frog - Ron Holt

  • Dainty TreeFrog - Lydia Fucsko

  • Cane Toad - Lydia Fucsko

  • Amphibian Ark

  • Two-toned Poison Frog - Richard Gibson

  • European Tree Frog - Richard Gibson

  • Slide 13

  • San Jose Cochran Frog - Ron Holt

  • Panama Golden Frogs – Paul Crump

  • Panamanian Golden Frog - Ron Gagliardo

  • Eleutherodactylus museosus - Brad Wilson

  • Crucifix Toad - Taronga Zoo

  • Hourglass Treefrog - Ron Holt

  • Asian Common Toad - Richard Gibson

  • Morrocan Toad - Kevin Johnson

  • Strawberry Poison Frog - Joe Milmoe

  • Banded Horned Tree Frog - Ron Holt

  • Slide 14

  • Amphibian Ark

  • Slide 16

  • TPWD

  • Slide 17

  • Top pictures – A Thousand Friends of Frogs

  • Lower picture – Melba Sexton

  • Slide 17

  • Top pictures – Herps of Texas

  • Bottom picture – Charles Smith, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

  • Slide 18

  • Strawberry Poison Frog - John Clarke

  • Asian Common Toad - Richard Gibson

  • Slide 19

  • TPWD


Useful Links

  • www.tpwd.state.tx.us/leapyear/

  • www.tpwd.state.tx.us/amphibians/

  • www.amphibianark.org

  • www.globalamphibians.org

  • cgee.hamline.edu/frogs/

  • www.aza.org/YearoftheFrog/

  • www.exploratorium.edu


Presentation designed by Heather Cardella Dammeyer


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