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Introduction to the Body Systems. March 27, 2007 BY: BRIANNA SHIELDS. DO NOW. 1. Which member of a food chain can directly utilize the sun’s energy? 2. Which member of a food chain is responsible for breaking down dead and decaying matter and returning it to the soil?

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Introduction to the body systems l.jpg

Introduction to the Body Systems

March 27, 2007

BY: BRIANNA SHIELDS


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DO NOW

  • 1. Which member of a food chain can directly utilize the sun’s energy?

  • 2. Which member of a food chain is responsible for breaking down dead and decaying matter and returning it to the soil?

  • 3. In which type of symbiotic relationship do both organisms that are involved benefit?


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GOAL

  • To understand how the body systems function together to maintain homeostasis in the body.


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CELL

ORGAN SYSTEM

TISSUE

ORGAN


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Organization in the Body

  • Cell--> smallest unit of life

  • Tissue--> made of many similar cells

  • Organ--> made of many similar tissues

  • Organ System--> several organs working together


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CELL

TISSUE

ORGAN

ORGAN SYSTEM

Blood Cells

Blood Tissue

Heart

Circulatory System

EXAMPLE


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EPITHELIAL

NERVE

CONNECTIVE

MUSCLE

BLOOD

Protects other tissue

Sends/receives messages

Supports/protects body

Allows movement

Carries oxygen, food through body

TYPES OF TISSUE


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Digestive

Breaks down food into small bits for cells to use

Body Systems Overview


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Peristalsis- involuntary squeezing of food through the digestive tract

Digestive System


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Pathway of Digestion

1. MOUTH-

Digestion begins, starches broken down (saliva and teeth)

2. ESOPHAGUS

Food passes through (peristalsis)


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Pathway of Digestion

STOMACH

Chemical & Mechanical digestion (proteins broken down)

SMALL INTESTINE

Most digestion happens, digestion is completed- find villi for absorbing nutrients


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Pathway of Digestion

LARGE INTESTINE

Stores & eliminates undigested food

ANUS

Solid waste passed out


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Respiratory

Lungs take in O2 which is combined w/ nutrients for energy

Body Systems Overview


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Pathway of oxygen

1. Mouth/ nose

2. Trachea

3. Two bronchial tubes

4. Bronchi branches

5. Air sacs

6. Capillaries

Blood picks up OXYGEN in capillaries of air sacs

The waste CARBON DIOXIDE is dumped off

Respiratory System



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Circulatory

Blood transports oxygen from lungs to cell, and wastes from cell to lungs

Body Systems Overview


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Pathway of Blood

Blood is pumped by the heart & carried by 3 types of blood vessels:

Arteries- carry blood away from heart (carries CO2)

Veins- carry blood to heart (carries O2)

Capillaries- tiny, thin walls so O2 and CO2 can pass through

Circulatory System


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Nervous

Receiving and sending messages

Body Systems Overview


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Stimulus Response Pathway

Made of nerve cells (NEURONS)

1. Senses send signals (stimulus) to brain

2. Brain decides how to respond (response)

3. Nerves carry response to proper part

Nervous System


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Excretory

Ridding body of wastes (water, heat, urine, CO2, salt)

Body Systems Overview



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Organs of Excretion

LUNGS- excretes CO2, water, heat

SKIN- excretes water, salt, heat

KIDNEYS- excretes water, salt, urine

Excretory System


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Organ of elimination

ANUS/LARGE INTESTINE- gets rid of feces (s0lid waste)

Excretory System


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Reproductive

Sex cells combine to make offspring (sperm + egg = fertilization)

Body Systems Overview



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Endocrine

Glands make and release chemical regulators into the blood: hormones to respond to changes inside & outside the body

Body Systems Overview


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GLANDS

Pituitary- controls all other glands

Thyroid- regulates metabolism

Thymus- fights infection

Adrenals- fights body stress

Islets of Langerhans- Produces insulin to control blood sugar levels

Gonads/Testes- makes sex cells

Endocrine System


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Muscular

Allows body to move

Muscles only contract (pull)- they don’t push

Body Systems Overview



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Types of muscles

VOLUNTARY (skeletal)

Can control them

Are attached to bones

Work in pairs

Muscular System


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Types of muscles

INVOLUNTARY (smooth)

Can’t control them

Found in blood vessels, organs, digestive tract

Muscular System


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Types of muscles

Cardiac (Heart)

Smooth, Involuntary

Muscular System


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Skeletal

Protects organs, allows movement, makes cells

Body Systems Overview


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Joints

How do bones move?

3 type of joints

Ball & Socket- allows twisting (hips)

Hinge- move in one direction (elbow)

Slightly moveable- limited movement (vertebra & ribs)

Skeletal System




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Bones

Blood cells made in marrow- have calcium

Skeletal System


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Cartilage

Softer, flexible bone

Skeletal System


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Ligaments

Holds bone together at joints

Skeletal System


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Tendons

Cordlike tissue that attaches muscle to bone

Skeletal System


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WEBSITES

  • Heart and Brain Virtual Body

  • My Body for Kids: Brain/Nervous System

  • My Body for Kids: Heart/Circulatory System

  • Yucky Body Facts

  • Interactive Body Review Games

  • Innerbody.com


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