Chapter 47: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems. 47-1 The Circulatory System. 47-2 Blood. 47-3 The Respiratory System. 47-1 The Circulatory System. I. The Heart (THORACIC cavity, behind STERNUM). Moves blood PULMONARY and SYSTEMIC loops.
Chapter 47: Circulatory and Respiratory Systems
47-1 The Circulatory System
47-3 The Respiratory System
47-1 The Circulatory System
I. The Heart (THORACIC cavity, behind STERNUM)
(1) Pericardium (promotes LONGEVITY of cardiac tissue)
(1)Some babies are born with a HOLE in the septum between the two atria. Based on what you know about BLOOD FLOW through the heart, explain why this condition would be HARMFUL to the baby.
(2) Septum (wall of tissue, PREVENTS mixing of blood)
(3) Atrium (Atria, RECEIVE blood returning from the lungs or body)
(4) Ventricle (PUMP blood to the lungs or the body’s circuits)
(5) Atrioventricular (AV) Valves [Tricuspid (R) and Mitral Valves (L)]
(6) Semilunar (SL) Valve [Pulmonary (R) and Aortic Valves (L)]
(2)One function of the cardiovascular system is to help maintain a uniform BODY TEMPERATURE. Explain HOW the constant circulation of blood throughout the body MAY accomplish this task.
(B) Circulation in the Heart
(1) Aorta (THICKEST artery)
(C) Control of the Heartbeat
(1) Sinoatrial Node (SA) [“Pacemaker”, located in RIGHT ATRIUM]
(2) Atrioventricular Node (AV) [Located in the SEPTUM between ATRIA]
(3) Systole (Heartbeat Phase 1 of 2; Blood LEAVES ventricles TO arteries)
(4) Diastole (Heartbeat Phase 2 of 2; Blood ENTERS atria TO ventricles)
(D) Blood Vessels (e.g., arteries, veins, capillaries)
(E) Arteries (have higher BP than veins) and Blood Pressure
(1) Arteries (carry blood AWAY from heart)
(2) Blood Pressure (high BP risks RUPTURING an artery)
(3) Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure
(4) Hypertension (sustained High Blood Pressure)
(F) Capillaries and Veins
(1) Arterioles (arterioles-CAPILLARIES-venules)
(2) Capillaries (1-celled thick)
(3) Venules and Veins (thinner, less muscular and WITH valves)
(4) Inferior Vena Cava (IVC) and Superior Vena Cava (SVC)
II. Patterns of Circulation
(1) Pulmonary Circulation
(2) Systemic Circulation
(A) Pulmonary Circulation
(1) Pulmonary Veins (RETURN blood from LUNGS back to LA)
(B) Systemic Circulation
(3)Why might it be possible that a person could turn PALE when they are frightened?
(1) Coronary Circulation (a SUBSYSTEM of systemic circulation)
(2) Atherosclerosis (or if an artery becomes BLOCKED)
(3) Renal Circulation (a second SUBSYSTEM)
(4) Hepatic Portal Circulation (a third SUBSYSTEM)
II. Lymphatic System (also part of the circulatory system, BUT NO pump)
(1) Lymph (GETS CHECKED AT LYMPH NODES)
(2) Lymphocytes (stored in LYMPH NODES by the immune system)
I. Composition of Blood (55% Liquid, 45% Solid Cells)
(A) Plasma (yellowish LIQUID of blood)
(4) Even a small increase or decrease in blood volume has an effect on BLOOD PRESSURE. When an accident victim suffers significant blood LOSS, the person is transferred with PLASMA rather than whole blood. Why might plasma be effective in meeting the IMMEDIATE threat to life?
(B) Red Blood Cells (a.k.a. Erythrocytes)
(1) Erythrocytes (NO nucleus, CANNOT divide)
(C) White Blood Cells (a.k.a. Leukocytes AND Lymphocytes)
(1) Leukocytes (made in RED marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen)
(2) Phagocytes (e.g., Macrophage, Dendritic Cells)
(D) Platelets (cell FRAGMENTS formed in RED marrow)
II. Blood Types
(1) Blood Types (A, B, AB, O)
(2) Antigen (either protein or glycoprotein)
(A) A-B-O System
(B) Rh System (85% is Rh +, 15% is Rh-)
(1) Rh Factor (named after Rhesus Monkey)
47-3 Respiratory System
I. The Lungs (ATMOSPHERE-BLOOD-ATMOSPHERE)
(5)Polio is a disease that paralyzes muscles by affecting the nerves that make them move. Before the polio vaccine was developed, many people afflicted with polio died to a LACK of respiration. Some of the survivors had to be placed in an “iron lung” that breathed for them. From what you know about the respiratory system, explain why people stricken with polio could no longer breathe on their own.
(1) External Respiration (OUTSIDE the body)
(2) Internal Respiration (INSIDE the body)
(A) The Passage of Air
(2) Trachea (a.k.a. windpipe, BRANCHES into bronchi)
(3) Larynx (UPPER region of trachea)
(4) Bronchi & Bronchioles (i.e., bronchi BRANCH to bronchioles)
(5) Alveoli (the END of a bronchiole)
(6) A person with anemia has TOO FEW red blood cells. The most common symptom is a LACK of energy. Why might anemia result in this symptom?
II. Gas Exchange and Transport (requires CONCENTRATION gradient)
(A) Gas Exchange in the Lungs (regulated by DIFFUSION)
(B) Hemoglobin and Gas Exchange
III. Mechanism of Breathing (moving air INTO and OUT of lungs)
(1) Inspiration (i.e., inhalation INCREASES volume of thoracic cage)
(2) Expiration (i.e., exhalation DECREASES volume of thoracic cage)
(A) Regulation of Breathing (breathing RATE ~ cellular METABOLISM)
Extra Slides AND Answers for Critical Thinking Questions
(1) The blood on the right side of the heart (deoxygenated blood) would mix with blood on the left side (oxygenated blood). As a result, cells would not get enough oxygen.
(2) Blood circulates very closet to every cell in the body, absorbing heat where the body is warmer than the blood and releasing heat where the body is cooler than the blood. Thus, blood distributes heat throughout the body, contributing to a uniform body temperature.
(3) Blood flow to the skin is reduced, and blood flow to muscles and glands is increased. Thus, a person may appear pale when frightened.
(4) The accident victim’s loss of blood volume and the loss of body fluid can cause the victim to go into shock. Transfusing plasma replenishes the fluid, helps stabilize the patient, and can be done quickly without taking time to type. The small number of antibodies the plasma contains become harmlessly diluted in the patient’s own blood.
(5) Polio can result in paralysis of the diaphragm and the muscles that control the rib cage. If these muscles cannot move, then the person cannot breathe.
(6) The fewer red blood cells there are, the less hemoglobin there is. The smaller the amount of hemoglobin, the smaller the amount of oxygen that can be transported. A smaller amount of oxygen means a decreased level of aerobic respiration and less energy (ATP).