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Swine Nutrition & Management. AnS 320 Fall 2006. Feeding Pigs -- Major Biological Processes. Maintenance Repair or replacement of body tissues and fluids Voluntary (walking) and involuntary (heart contractions) activities Generation of body heat for warmth Regulation of immune systems

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Swine nutrition management

Swine Nutrition & Management

AnS 320

Fall 2006


Feeding pigs major biological processes
Feeding Pigs -- Major Biological Processes

  • Maintenance

    • Repair or replacement of body tissues and fluids

    • Voluntary (walking) and involuntary (heart contractions) activities

    • Generation of body heat for warmth

    • Regulation of immune systems

  • Growth

    • Production of body tissues (muscle, bone), organs (mammary glands), fluids (milk), fluid components (red blood cells)


Factors affecting nutrient requirements of pigs
Factors Affecting Nutrient Requirements of Pigs

  • Environment

    • Temperature, weather, housing, competition

  • Breed, sex, and genetic background

  • Health status of the herd

  • Presence of molds, toxins, or inhibitors

  • Availability and absorption of dietary nutrients


Factors affecting nutrient requirements of pigs1
Factors Affecting Nutrient Requirements of Pigs

  • Variation of nutrient content and availability in the feed

  • Level of feed additives or growth promotants

  • Energy concentration in the diet

  • Level of feeding – limit feeding vs. ad libitum


Energy
Energy

  • Mostly supplied by carbohydrates and fats

  • Cereal grains – corn, milo, wheat, barley, and by-products

  • Fat – 2.25 X energy of cereal grains

  • Most cereal grains and fats are palatable and digestible

  • Cereal by-products are more variable – limited use in swine diets


Cereal grains
Cereal Grains

  • Corn is primary energy source

  • Generally meet the pig’s energy needs

  • Must be supplemented with:

    • Amino acids (protein)

    • Vitamins

    • Minerals

  • Must determine adequate energy intake

    • If low-energy feeds are used or external factors limit feed intake

    • Pigs are limit fed – sows and gilts


Additional energy sources
Additional Energy Sources

  • Milo – equal substitute for corn – primarily used in Southwest

  • Wheat – excellent feed grain, usually not competitive in price

  • Barley – less energy and more fiber – improves meat quality???

  • Oats – more lysine, more fiber

  • High-lysine corn – selected for improved protein quality


Fat in swine diets
Fat in Swine Diets

  • Choice white grease, beef tallow, corn oil, soybean oil

  • 2.25 X metabolizable energy of cereal grains

  • 3 – 5% fat in grow-finish diets will improve ADG and FE

  • Tends to increase backfat

  • Reduces dust and wear on equipment

  • Potential handling and storage problems

  • Economic decision


Proteins and amino acids
Proteins andAmino Acids

  • Pig does not have a specific requirement for crude protein

  • Does have requirements for amino acids

  • Proteins are made up of different combinations of approximately 20 different amino acids

  • Proteins are broken down into amino acids that are absorbed into the bloodstream

  • Crude protein usually meets AA requirements – must check if synthetic amino acids or by-products are used


Essential amino acids
Essential Amino Acids

  • 10 essential amino acids

    • Most cereal grains are limiting in lysine, tryptophan, threonine, and methionine

  • Level determines protein quality – lysine is most important

  • Limiting amino acid – protein synthesis cannot proceed beyond level of any essential amino acid

  • Deficiency results in lower ADG, reduced FE, unthriftiness, and reduced reproductive performance


Amino acid deficiency
Amino Acid Deficiency

  • Consider amino acids as the staves of a barrel

  • You can fill the barrel (growth rate) only to the level of the shortest stave

Methionine

Threonine

Isoleucine

Tryptophan

Lysine

Valine


Rain barrel concept
Rain Barrel Concept

  • Shortage of an amino acid will limit growth and (or) reproductive performance

Methionine

Threonine

Isoleucine

Valine

Tryptophan

Lysine


Sources of amino acids
Sources of Amino Acids

  • Plant sources

    • Soybean meal – primary source in swine diets

    • Cottonseed meal

    • Corn gluten meal

  • Animal sources

    • Meat and bone meal

    • Tankage

    • Fish meal

    • Spray-dried blood meal – early-weaned pig diets


Synthetic amino acids
Synthetic Amino Acids

  • Can reduce feed costs and maintain pig performance

  • Lysine and methionine are most common

  • Synthetic lysine can reduce soybean meal requirement – must evaluate economics

  • Not used in gestation and lactation diets

    • Gestation – poorly utilized if not fed ad libitum

    • Lactation – decreases amount of other AA relative to lysine – reduce litter weaning weights


Minerals
Minerals

  • Role ranges from structural functions to wide variety of regulatory functions

  • Important for health and well-being of the pig

  • Importance increased with confinement due to reduced access to soil and forages

  • Macrominerals – major minerals

    • Calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, magnesium, potassium

  • Microminerals – minor or trace minerals

    • Zinc, copper, iron, manganese, iodine, selenium, chromium


Minerals to swine diets
Minerals to Swine Diets

  • Should not be added haphazardly

  • “If a little is good, more is better” does not hold true

  • Some minerals, if added in excess, will interfere with absorption of other minerals

  • All minerals have a toxic level

  • Impact on environment


Calcium and phosphorus
Calcium and Phosphorus

  • Important in skeletal structure and development

  • Essential for blood clotting, muscle contraction, energy metabolism

  • Deficiency will result in impaired bone mineralization, reduced bone growth, and poor growth rate

  • “Downer Sows” may result if sows are fed diets low in Ca and P – sows remove Ca and P from the bone, decreasing bone strength


Calcium and phosphorus1
Calcium and Phosphorus

  • Calcium

    • Most grains are low in calcium

    • Limestone is source of supplemental Ca

  • Phosphorus

    • Mainly supplied by dicalcium phosphate or monocalcium phosphate

    • Feeds of animal origin are high in calcium and available phosphorus

    • P content of cereal grains is mainly phytate phosphorus – poorly utilized by swine


Phytate phosphorus unavailable form of phosphorus
Phytate Phosphorus – Unavailable Form of Phosphorus

  • 50 to 70% of P in plant products is unavailable to the pig

  • Not digested and is excreted in manure

  • Excess phosphorus excretion into the environment – formulate diets based on available P

  • Phytase – enzyme that increases digestibility of phytate phosphorus

    • Use to reduce phosphorus excretions

    • Evaluate economics


Vitamins
Vitamins

  • Required for normal metabolic function

  • Development of normal tissues

  • Growth and maintenance

  • Some are produced by the pig, some are present in commonly used feed ingredients, several must be added to swine diets

  • Natural sources – very few are used today

    • Green leafy plants, grasses, alfalfa

    • Less variety in feed ingredients to supply vitamins

    • Vitamin content of grain and protein sources may be unavailable or lost during storage


Important vitamins
Important Vitamins

  • Fat-soluble

    • A, D, E, and K

  • Water-soluble or B-complex

    • Pantothenic acid

    • Riboflavin

    • Niacin

    • B12

  • Gestation/Lactation Diets

    • Folic acid, pyridoxine, choline, biotin

  • Synthetic vitamins added in form of vitamin premix


Changes in vitamin mineral nutrition
Changes in Vitamin/Mineral Nutrition

  • Increased confinement – no access to growing crops and soil

  • Increased use of slotted floors – less recycling of feces

  • Fewer protein sources in diets

  • Reduced daily feed intake in gestation

  • Early weaning of pigs – diet is more critical

  • Availability of nutrients in heat-dried grains and feed ingredients varies widely


Water
Water

  • Most essential and cheapest of all nutrients

  • Water deprivation

    • Reduces feed consumption, limits growth and feed efficiency, lowers milk production

  • Physiological functions

    • Temperature regulation

    • Transport of nutrients and wastes

    • Metabolic processes

    • Lubrication

    • Milk production


Water requirements
Water Requirements

  • Related to feed intake and body weight

    • 80% of BW at birth

    • 50% of BW in finished market pig

  • Pigs consume 1.5 to 2X as much water as feed

  • Need is increased with:

    • High salt intake

    • High temperatures

    • Fever, diarrhea

    • Lactation

  • Wet feeding or liquid feeding

    • Improved FE and less water wastage in finishing

    • Potential for spoilage and mold problems


Feed additives
Feed Additives

  • Animal drugs – antibiotics, dewormers

    • Withdrawal time

  • Growth-promoting minerals

    • Copper sulfate, zinc oxide

  • Enzymes – phytase

  • Organic acids – may improve digestibility for early weaned pigs

  • Probiotics – organisms that stimulate growth of desirable organisms in the gut

    • Lactobacillus, streptococcus, etc.


Feed processing systems
Feed Processing Systems

  • Complete feed – ready-to-feed product delivered to the farm

  • Grain and supplement (40% protein)

  • Base mix program – everything except grain and protein

  • Premix program –

    • Most precisely designed and cost-effective

    • Macro minerals, trace minerals, and vitamins added to protein and grain


Evaluating economics
Evaluating Economics

  • Base price of ingredients is important

  • Cheapest diet is not always best

  • Evaluate cost/lb of gain

  • Numerous opportunities to evaluate and adjust diets


Impact of changing diet cost by 5 ton
Impact of Changing Diet Cost by $5/ton

WeightFeed/pig,lbCents/pig

11-15 5 1.2

15-25 15 3.8

25-50 50 12.5

50-80 69 17.2

80-120 107 26.8

120-160 119 29.8

160-200 132 33.0

200-250 177 44.2


Lactation
Lactation

  • A lactating sow nursing 9 + pigs/litter is estimated to need approximately

    • 17 Mcal of metabolizable energy and

    • 45 to 50 grams of lysine per day

KSU Swine Nutrition Guide


What factors affect feed intake of lactating sows
What Factors Affect Feed Intake of Lactating Sows??

  • Environmental Conditions

    • Particularly HEAT

    • Room temps, geographical area, season

  • Genetics

    • High-lean lines have reduced appetites

  • Parity

    • Older parities have more capacity to ingest feed


Feed intake and nutrient content of

diets tend to be inversely related

1.4 Mcal/lb

17 Mcal ME

x

=

12 lbs

12 lbs

0.9 %

50 g lysine

Sow

Feed Intake

Nutrient Content

of Ration

Daily Nutrient

Requirements

KSU, Swine Nutrition Guide


Feed intake and nutrient content of

diets tend to be inversely related

2.1 Mcal/lb

17 Mcal ME

x

=

12 lbs

8 lbs

1.4%

50 g lysine

Sow Feed

Intake

Nutrient Content

of Ration

Daily Nutrient

Requirements

KSU, Swine Nutrition Guide


Feed intake and nutrient content of

diets tend to be inversely related

17 Mcal ME

16 lbs

x

=

1.1 Mcal/lb

12 lbs

50 g lysine

0.7 %

Sow Feed

Intake

Nutrient Content

of Ration

Daily Nutrient

Requirements

KSU Swine Nutrition Guide


Effect of drip and snout coolers on feed intake
Effect of Drip and Snout Coolers on Feed Intake

McGlone et al., 1988; room temperature maintained at 86° F.


General guidelines for feeding lactating sows
General Guidelines for Feeding Lactating Sows

  • Never limit feed sows

  • Estimate feed intake patterns and adjust diets accordingly

    • Meet the target lysine and energy intakes

    • Record feed intake or chart daily consumption

  • Consider two or more lactation diets

    • Summer versus winter

    • Gilts versus sows


General feeding recommendations after farrowing
General Feeding Recommendations after Farrowing

  • Option 1. Ad libitum access to feed following farrowing

    • Gets the female to full feed quickly

    • May result in more opportunity for lactation failure (some farms report this as a problem)

    • Important to actively get sows up at feeding time


General feeding recommendations after farrowing1
General Feeding Recommendations after Farrowing

  • Option 2. Start at 4 to 5 pounds per day on day of farrowing, increase in 2 to 3 pound intervals over the next 3 days

    • Full feed achieved in about 4 to 5 days

    • May result in fewer milk production problems

    • May result in more total feed intake during lactation


Increasing feed intake
Increasing Feed Intake

  • Cool sows

    • Snout coolers, drip system

    • Intermittent dripping is best

  • Feed 2 to 3 times per day

    • Get sows up and moving

    • Early mornings and nights when heat stressed

  • Provide only Fresh Feed

    • Avoid stale feed in feeder and feed supply

    • Clean old feed out thoroughly

  • Wet Feeding

    • Gruel feeding, be aware of potential for spoilage


Impact of water intake on milk production
Impact of Water Intake on Milk Production

  • Sow will drink 5 to 8 gallons of water a day

    • Recommended flow rate of 4 cups per minute

      • Effect of 0.3 cup/min vs 3 cups/min

        • 10 to 15% reduction in Feed Intake over a 21 day lactation

    • Stray-voltage will severely restrict water intake and impact performance


Lactation feeding levels
Lactation Feeding Levels

Parity ADF (lb/day @21 day)

  • 1 10.0 to 11.0

  • 2 13.0 to 14.0

  • 3 + 14.0 to 16.0


Early weaning technology
Early Weaning Technology

  • Goal -- to control chronic swine diseases by isolating the young pig from its dam at an early age

  • Pigs are free of many chronic pathogens at birth

  • Colostral antibodies are important


Benefits of early weaning
Benefits of Early Weaning

  • Reduce production losses caused by disease

  • Reduce medication costs

  • Maximize potential for lean growth

  • Increase pigs/breeding female/year

  • Reduces need for total depopulation of herd


Feeding behavior
Feeding Behavior

  • Early weaned pigs try to eat at the feeder simultaneously

  • Place feed on a feeding board several times a day to provide ample space

  • Use clean polyethylene boards to prevent transfer of infectious organisms

  • Implement short feeding times on boards

    • Feed is expensive

    • Higher feed wastage

    • ½ to 1 in. high rim to prevent wastage


Feeder design
Feeder Design

A variety ofmanufacturers market nursery feeders

that are properly designed.


Goals nursery performance
Goals - Nursery Performance

Nutritional Programs for Early Weaned Pigs

  • ADG between .80 and .90 lb/day

  • F/G between 1.55 and 1.75

  • Mortality < 2%

  • Feed costs ~ $7 per pig

    • $.15 to $.20 per lb of gain


Early weaned pigs
Early-Weaned Pigs

  • Good nutrition is critical immediately after weaning

    1) Good nutrition increases average daily gain through market

    2) Good nutrition maximizes lean growth potential

    3) Good nutrition decreases the risk of enteric disease


Protein sources
Protein Sources:

Spray-Dried

Blood Meal

Spray-Dried

Plasma Protein

Whey-Protein

Soybean Meal

Fish Meal

Spray-Dried

Egg Protein

Skim Milk

Further Processed

Soy Products


Diet form
Diet Form

  • Meal diets vs. Pelleted or Crumbled diets

    • Feed wastage is 20% higher in meal diets

    • Decreased feed efficiency

    • Limited feed intake?

    • Meal diets do not feed down & out of feeders easily because of bridging

      • Reduce bridging by limiting added fat to 1%


Example feed budgets per pig
Example Feed Budgets Per Pig

Weaning Age and Initial Weight

7 d

14 d

21 d

Diet

6 lbs.

9 lbs.

13 lbs.

SEW

5

1

--

Transition

5

5

--

Phase 1

--

--

2

Phase 2

15

15

15

Phase 3

50

50

50



Percentage of nursery feed cost per diet phase
Percentage of nursery feed cost per diet phase (%) pigs

Weaning Age and Initial Weight

7 d

14 d

21 d

Diet

6 lbs.

9 lbs.

13 lbs.

SEW

21

10

NA

Transition

14

16

NA

Phase 1

NA

NA

10

Phase 2

19

22

27

Phase 3

46

52

64


Influence of segregated early weaning on pig performance
Influence of Segregated Early Weaning on Pig Performance pigs

lb

Days of Age

  • Dritz et al. 1996


Influence of growth during the first week post weaning on subsequent performance
Influence of Growth During the First Week Post Weaning on Subsequent Performance

Weight Advantage, lb

20

< 0 lb/d

0 - .33 lb/d

.33 - .50 lb/d

> .50 lb/d

15

10

5

0

0 7 28 56 156

Tokach et al., 1992

Day Postweaning


Low feed intake in the first week after weaning is associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

106 Farms

Madec et al., 1998


All in all out aiao in finishing
All-In, All-Out (AIAO) in Finishing associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

  • Strict sanitation and biosecurity

  • Follow the rules – remove all pigs from the facility, including tailenders

  • Increased weight gain (6 – 10%)

  • Decreased days to market (6 – 10 days)

  • Improved feed efficiency (5 – 7%)


Feed efficiency
Feed Efficiency associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

  • Traditional Measure

    • lb feed/lb live wt gain

      • Each 0.1 unit improvement in feed efficiency (lb feed:lb live gain) reduces feed cost by $1.00 to $1.50/pig or more

  • Progressive

    • lb feed/lb lean gain


Factors influencing feed efficiency
Factors Influencing Feed Efficiency associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

  • Non-nutritional factors

    • Feed wastage

    • Stress (temperature, crowding)

    • Health status

    • Adequacy of feed preparation (particle size and form)

  • Nutritional Factors

    • Nutrient composition of diet

    • Adequacy of diet for genetic type and production environment


Feed wastage impact on feed utilization

Improper adjustment associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

Poor design

Economic and Environmental Benefits to proper adjustment

Feed Wastage, Impact on Feed Utilization

* 50 to 250 lbs; 3:1 feed/gain; .60% P and 2.4% N in diet


Feed wastage impact on feed utilization1

Improper adjustment associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

Poor design

Economic and Environmental Benefits to proper adjustment

Feed Wastage, Impact on Feed Utilization

* 50 to 250 lbs; 3:1 feed/gain; .60% P and 2.4% N in diet


Properly adjusted feeder
Properly Adjusted Feeder associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth


Impact of feed preparation on feed efficiency

Pellets associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

5% FE

$10 to $15 /ton cost

Reduced dust

Meal

Lower cost/ton

On-farm grinding

Fewer ulcers

Impact of Feed Preparation on Feed Efficiency

  • Feed particle size (target 600-800 microns)

    • size Dry matter Feed/Gain

    • 700 86.1 1.74

    • 700-1000 84.9 1.82

    • >1000 83.7 1.93


Feed intake
Feed Intake associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

  • Critical for establishing nutrient intake

    • Measuring and monitoring on the farm is critical

      • Sex effect is large

        • barrows consume ~10% more than gilts

    • Genetic lines differ in voluntary intake

    • Seasonal effects can be significant


How do we feed the g f pig
How do we feed the G/F pig?? associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

  • Split sex feeding

    BarrowGilt

    Feed Intake higher – 10 %

    ADG higher – 8 to 10 %

    Feed Efficiency poorer + 2 to 3 %

    Lean Meat % poorer + 1 to 3 %

  • Sexes fed to meet intake, growth and lean potential

    • Barrows -- lower protein (lysine)

    • Gilts -- higher density energy and protein (lysine) levels


Phase feeding matching nutrient levels to the pig s needs
Phase Feeding associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growthMatching nutrient levels to the pig’s needs

  • Multiple diet formulations during G/F

    • Often geared toward the middle or average pigs because weight variation exists within groups

    • Between 3 and 6 diets often used

      • Dependent on the understanding of pigs’ genotype, environment, feed costs, feed processing costs, target ending weight

      • Liquid diets may facilitate easier changes


Nutritional management
Nutritional Management associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

“Single Phase” Nutritional Program

Poor pig performance

15% CP (50 to 250 lb)

Underfeed CP

Overfeed CP

Excess N and P excretion

50

250

Live Weight


Nutritional management1
Nutritional Management associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

“Multiple Phase” Nutrition Program designed to meet genetic capacity, health and facilities of the pig

Minimize overfeeding

of essential nutrients

CP and Nutrient Levels

changed frequently to closely match pig needs

50

250

Live Weight


Management considerations
Management Considerations associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

  • Space requirements

    • Conventional confinement finisher

      • 7.5 to 8 square feet per pig

    • Hoop structures

      • 12 to 15 square feet per pig

  • Water access

    • Nipple waterers (minimum of 2 per pen)

      • one for every 8 to 12 pigs

    • Bowl waterers

      • one bowl for each 8 to 10 pigs


Management considerations1
Management Considerations associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

  • Feeder space requirements

    • General rule -- Dry feeders

      • Space for 15 - 25% of pigs eating simultaneously

      • 1 feeder hole per 4 to 5 pigs

      • 10 to 12 inches of space per feeder hole

    • Wet/Dry feeders

      • Two holes for each 20 to 25 pigs


Management considerations2
Management Considerations associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

  • Group Size

    • Confinement Facilities

      • 20 - 25 pigs/pen standard

      • Significant interest in groups sizes of up to 500 +

    • Hoop Structures

      • 75 to 200 head per group standard

  • Thermal comfort zone

    • Temperature range in which animal does not have to expend additional energy to regulate its body temperature40 - 75 lbs 70 - 85 oF

      75 - 150 lbs 60 - 83 oF

      150 - 250 lbs 45 - 80 oF


Wean to finish concept
Wean-to-Finish Concept associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

  • Benefits observed in labor and/or pig efficiency

    • Reduced transportation costs

      • Fewer moves and less labor to move pigs

    • Reduced labor for washing and disinfecting

      • Fewer nursery rooms to clean

    • Reduced stress of moving and commingling

      • Improved ADG, better FE

    • Increased facility flexibility

      • Finisher can be modified easier than a nursery

    • Reduced down-time between groups


Wean to finish facility
Wean to Finish Facility associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth


Disadvantages of wean to finish
Disadvantages of Wean-to-Finish associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

  • Increased facility cost

    • $15 to $20 per head to accommodate young pig

    • Supplemental heat, mats, feeders, etc.

  • Less efficient space utilization

    • Especially with the small pig

  • Potential for higher utility costs

    • Supplemental heat early


Wean to finish conclusions
Wean-to-Finish Conclusions associated with increased risk of diarrhea and slow growth

  • Decision is farm situation dependent

  • Must fit production flow

  • Revenue must offset additional cost

  • Health issue alone may be driver for some operations


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