Motivating employees and creating self managed teams
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Motivating Employees and Creating Self-Managed Teams. Chapter 10. Chapter 10 Learning Goals. W hat are the basic principles of Frederick Taylor’s concept of scientific management? W hat did Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne studies reveal about worker motivation?

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Motivating employees and creating self managed teams

Motivating Employees and Creating Self-Managed Teams

Chapter 10


Chapter 10 learning goals

Chapter 10 Learning Goals

  • Whatare the basic principles of Frederick Taylor’s concept of scientific management?

  • What did Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne studies reveal about worker motivation?

  • What is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and how do these needs relate to motivation?

  • How are McGregor’s Theories X and Y used to explain worker motivation?

  • What are the basic components of Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory?


Chapter 10 learning goals cont d

Chapter 10 Learning Goals (cont’d.)

  • Whatthree contemporary theories on employee motivation offer insights into improving employee performance?

  • How can managers redesign existing jobs to increase employee motivation and performance?

  • What different types of teams are being used in organizations today?

  • What initiatives are organizations using today to motivate and retain employees?


Learning goal 1

Learning Goal 1

  • Whatare the basic principles of Frederick Taylor’s concept of scientific management?

    • Develop a scientific approach for each element of a person’s job

    • Scientifically select, train, teach, and develop workers

    • Encourage cooperation between workers and managers so that each job can be accomplished in a standard, scientifically determined way

    • Divide work and responsibility between management and workers according to who is better suited to each task


Evolution of motivation theory

Evolution of Motivation Theory

1. Scientific Management

2. Hawthorne Studies

3. Hierarchy of Needs

4. Theories X and Y

5. Motivator-Hygiene Theory


Principles of scientific management

Principles of Scientific Management

1. Develop a science of every job element

2. Scientifically select, train, & instruct workers

3. Cooperation between workers & managers

4. Match individuals to well-suited tasks and responsibilities


Learning goal 2

Learning Goal 2

  • What did Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne studies reveal about worker motivation?

    • Increases in performance are tied to a complex set of employee attitudes

      • Employees singled out for special attention develop pride that motivates workers to increase productivity

      • Employees will perform better if they feel that management is concerned about their welfare


Hawthorne studies

Hawthorne Studies

Hawthorne Effect:

The phenomenon that employees perform better when they feel singled out for attention or feel that management is concerned about their welfare


Learning goal 3

Learning Goal 3

  • What is Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and how do these needs relate to motivation?

    • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs consisted of

      • Physiological needs

      • Safety needs

      • Social needs

      • Esteem needs

      • Self-actualization needs

    • Managers can increase employee motivation by modifying organizational and managerial practices to help employees meet all levels of needs


Maslow s hierarchy of needs

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Self-actualization needs

Esteemneeds

Social needs

Safety needs

Physiological needs


Learning goal 4

Learning Goal 4

  • How are McGregor’s Theories X and Y used to explain worker motivation?

    • Theory X states

      • People don’t like to work and will avoid it if they can

      • People must be controlled, directed or threatened to get them to make an effort

      • Workers want to avoid responsibility but want job security

    • Theory Y states

      • Work is as natural as play or rest

      • People want to be self-directed and will try to accomplish goals in which they believe

      • Positive incentives will motivate workers

      • People seek responsibility and are willing to help solve problems

    • McGregor believed Theory Y assumptions describe most employees


Mcgregor s theories of human motivation

Theory X

people dislike work

people need to be controlled, & threatened

people avoid responsibility &

value security

TheoryY

work is as natural as play

people respond to positive incentives

people enjoy responsibility & like to solve problems

McGregor’s Theoriesof Human Motivation


Learning goal 5

Learning Goal 5

  • What are the basic components of Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory?

    • Certain job factors are consistently related to employee job satisfaction (satisfiers)

      • Achievement and recognition

      • The nature of work itself

      • Responsibility and advancement

      • Growth

    • Certain job factors can create job dissatisfaction (dissatisfiers) if not well-managed

      • Company policy

      • Relationships with supervisors, peers, and subordinates

      • Working conditions, salary, and benefits

      • Job security


Herzberg s motivator hygiene theory

Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene Theory

Motivating factors:

intrinsic job elements that lead to worker satisfaction

Hygiene factors:

extrinsic elements of the work environment that, if not managed well, lead to worker dissatisfaction


Learning goal 6

Learning Goal 6

  • What three contemporary theories on employee motivation offer insights into improving employee performance?

    • Expectancy theory - motivation depends on link between:

      • Effort and performance

      • Performance and outcome

      • Outcomes and personal needs

    • Equity theory - based on individuals’ perceptions about how fairly they are treated compared with coworkers

    • Goal-setting theory - employees are highly motivated to perform when specific goals are established and feedback on progress is offered


Contemporary motivation theory

Contemporary Motivation Theory

1. Expectancy Theory

2. Equity Theory

3. Goal-Setting Theory


Motivating employees and creating self managed teams 1312754

Expectancy theory:

The probability of a behavior depends on:

(1) strength of individual’s belief that the behavior will have a particular outcome, and

(2) whether the individual values the outcome


Motivating employees and creating self managed teams 1312754

Equity theory:

Worker satisfaction is influenced by employees’ perceptions about how fairly they are treated compared with their coworkers


Equity theory

Equity Theory

Upward social comparison: comparing oneself to another who is better off on a particular attribute

  • frequently results in decreased satisfaction

    Downward social comparison: comparing oneself to another who is worse off on a particular attribute

  • frequently results in increased satisfaction


Learning goal 7

Learning Goal 7

  • How can managers redesign existing jobs to increase employee motivation and performance?

    • Job enlargement – horizontal expansion of a job by increasing number and variety of tasks performed

    • Job enrichment – vertical expansion of a job to provide more autonomy, responsibility, and decision-making authority for employee

    • Job rotation – shifting of workers from one job to another to broaden an employee’s skill base

    • Popular motivational tools – Work-scheduling options, employee recognition programs, empowerment, variable-pay programs


Applying motivation theory

Applying Motivation Theory

1. Motivational job design

  • job enlargement

  • job enrichment

  • job rotation

    2. Work scheduling options

  • job sharing

    3. Recognition, empowerment, & economic incentives

  • variable pay


Job characteristics model

Job Characteristics Model

1. Skill variety

2. Task identity

  • task has visible results

    3. Task significance

    4. Autonomy

  • employee freedom and independence

    5. Task feedback

  • working on task provides performance feedback

Source: Hackman & Oldham, 1976, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, v. 16, pp. 250-279.


Learning goal 8

Learning Goal 8

  • What different types of teams are being used in organizations today?

    • Problem-solving teams

      • Employees from same department, area of expertise, and level of hierarchy

      • Meet to share information and discuss ways to improve processes and procedures in specific functional areas

    • Self-managed work teams

      • Highly autonomous groups that manage themselves

      • Set goals, plan and schedule work activities, select team members, evaluate team performance


Learning goal 8 cont d

Learning Goal 8 (cont’d.)

  • What different types of teams are being used in organizations today?

    • Cross-functional teams

      • Employees of same hierarchical level but different functional areas of the organization

      • Allows people with various areas of expertise to pool resources, develop new ideas, solve problems, coordinate complex projects

    • Virtual team

      • Employees from different geographic or organizational locations that use a combination of telecommunications and information technologies to come together

      • Work together to accomplish a common goal but rarely meet face-to-face


Motivating employees and creating self managed teams 1312754

Group cohesiveness:

the degree to which group members want to stay in the group and tend to resist outside influences


2 types of cohesiveness

2 Types of Cohesiveness

1.Interpersonal cohesiveness: strong bonds & liking between people

2. Task cohesiveness: strong commitment to the group task among members

Cohesiveness can increase team performance, but interpersonally cohesive teams may lack task focus

Source: Kenrick et al., Social Psychology, p. 441.


Pros and cons of teams

Cons:

take longer to reach solution

members may suppress disagreement

group may be dominated by a few individuals

lack of accountability

Pros and Cons of Teams

  • Pros:

  • more information & knowledge

  • can generate more alternatives

  • often higher-quality decisions

  • group participation increases acceptance of solutions


Types of teams

Types of Teams

1. Problem-solving

within one area

within one management level

2. Cross-functional

within one management level

across different areas

3. Self-managed

autonomous


Building blocks of high performance teams

1. Skills

2. Accountability

3. Commitment

Problem solving

Technical/functional

Interpersonal

Small number of members

Mutual accountability

Individual accountability

Specific goals

Common approach

Meaningful purpose

Building Blocks of High Performance Teams


Learning goal 9

Learning Goal 9

  • What initiatives are organizations using today to motivate and retain employees?

    • Investing more in employee education and training

      • Makes workers more productive

      • Less resistant to job change

    • Managers are offering employees a chance for ownership in the company

    • Employers are providing work-life benefits to help employees achieve a better balance between work and personal responsibilities

      • Telecommuting and job sharing

      • Subsidized child care

      • On-site fitness centers


Trends in motivation

Trends in Motivation

  • Improved Education & Training

  • Increased Employee Ownership

  • More Work-Life Benefits

    • Deloitte & Touche consulting firm offers Work/life

      Balance options:

      reduced hours, reduced workload, continuing part-time, flextime, telecommuting, assistance programs (Source: Deloitte & Touche, www.dttus.com)


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