Michelle xu wendy li erika chan megan yuan sharon choi
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INDIA. MICHELLE XU, WENDY LI, ERIKA CHAN, MEGAN YUAN, SHARON CHOI. 8000 BCE - 600. Indus River Valley. Harappan Society: Agricultural society (water source from river flooding) Surplus population increasecities:Harappa and Mohenjo Daro

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8000 BCE - 600

Indus River Valley

  • Harappan Society:

  • Agricultural society (water source from river flooding)

  • Surpluspopulation increasecities:Harappa and Mohenjo Daro

  • Sophisticated planned cities: grid like streets, uniformly constructed buildings, wastewater system (showers and toilets).

  • Economy: agricultural, trade cotton and cloth

  • Rulers yield great authority.

  • Great distinction between the rich and the poor.

  • Polytheistic

  • Decline: Aryan arrival

Aryan Arrival

  • With horse drawn chariots, advantage over Indus valley people. Migrate throughout India.

  • Vedic Age: Vedas: collection of songs, hymns, prayers, rituals. Reflect society in which Aryans clash with Dravidians.

  • Religion: polytheistic; Upanishads explain why one is born into caste system.

  • Due to agriculture: tribal non centralized gov’tmore formal gov’t: council of elders (authority), and states governed by citizen representatives.Form small regional kingdoms.

Caste System

  • Originally formed to maintain social order.

  • Use “varna” or skin color to create hierarchy.

  • 1)Brahmins, 2) warriors and aristocrats, 3) cultivators and artisans, 4) peasants/serfs, 5)untouchables

  • Subcastes “jati” later form: reflect social changes, and allow foreigners to fit into society.

  • Members of jati improve their conditions collectively.

  • Patriarchal society: male authority. Women have influence, but no roles in religious rituals.

  • Sati: devotion to husbands, kill themselves on husband’s funeral day.

Mauryan and Gupta Empires

  • Mauryan: unify India

  • Chandrarupta Maurya- use spies for bureaucratic administration

  • High point: Ashoka Maurya- tightly organized bureaucracy. Closely monitor regional affairs

  • Support Buddhism

  • Encourage trade (roads with comfort stations for merchants)

  • Fall of empire with Ashoka’s death: economic problems (soldiers and bureaucracy too expensive)

  • Gupta: Chandra Gupta

  • Leave administration to local gov’tstability and prosperity

  • Science and math advancements: plastic surgery, astronomy (earth is sphere), “0” and numeral systemalgebra and calc.

  • Fall: White Huns


  • Harappan gods and goddesses: close relations to Hindu gods

  • Caste System

  • Algebra and calc.

  • Hindi numerals Arabic numerals

  • Cotton/cloth production (starting in Harappan societies)

600 - 1450

  • Indian Ocean trade: Trade route where Persians and Arabs dominated the ports in western India to ports in the Persian Gulf, which were connected to ports in eastern Africa. – Monsoon winds



  • Silk Roads: The Indians contributed a major source of cotton into the trade route. Along the Silk Roads, Buddhism and Hinduism spread to East Asia and Southeast Asia.

  • MAJOR CHANGE!!! - Islam enters India, in addition to Hinduism and Buddhism

Delhi Sultanate:

-Islamic invaders defeat disorganized Hindus in North India.

-Beginning in 1206, Islam spreads to much of northern India for next 200 years. Non-Muslims who didn’t want to convert had to pay JIZYA.



  • Hindu temples destroyed.

  • Laid the foundation of hatred for Hindus and Muslims for future generations

  • Under the Islamic Sultans, colleges were founded.

  • Irrigation systems improved

  • Mosques were built = CULTURAL DIFFUSION!!

North India - Muslim

South India - Hindu

Indian Influences on Islam

  • Sophisticated mathematics, science and medicine

  • “Hindi Numerals” -> “Arabic Numerals”

  • Numerals lead to discoveries on algebra, geometry and trigonometry

South India

  • The Chola Kingdom + The Kingdom of Vijayanagar – prospered greatly from Indian Ocean Trade Routes

  • Continuity: Majority of population remains Hindu

Changes to Caste System

  • Continuity: Caste system has always been changing, always adjusting to new circumstances, such as migrations and urbanization.

  • Creation of a new subcaste: jati - made up of workers, merchants, manufacturers. They were very influential because they brought wealth to society.

India Influences Southeast Asia

  • Indian merchants spread ideas to Southeast Asia.

  • CHANGE AND CONTINUITY: Southeast Asians embraced Hinduism and Buddhism. They took Buddism and mixed in their own ideas. As a result, there are two branches of Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism and Theravada Buddhism.

1450 - 1750


  • In 1526, Babur defeats the Delhi Sultanate and establishes the Mughal Empire.

  • United almost all of India

  • Akbar’s reign (1556-1605) was a golden age


  • Allowed trade with Europeans

  • Allowed formation of trading stations and merchant colonies by British, Portugese, French, and Dutch

  • British East India Company dominated trade in the region


  • Mughal empire le by Muslims

  • Akbar had a policy of religious tolerance- eliminated jizya, welcomed Hindus into government positions. Sought to create a mixture of the religions, his “divine faith”-was not successsful.

  • Aurangzeb (1659-1707) broke policy of religious tolerance. Imposed tax on Hindus, demolished several famous Hindu temples and replaced them with mosques- deep hostility among Hindus

  • Goa was center of Christian mission


  • Akbar sought to improve position of women by trying to eliminate sati (Hindu women throw themselves on husband’s funeral pyre)


  • FatehpurSikri- city planned and constructed by Akbar to serve as capital. Even though the buildings had Islamic “character”, they had Indian elements, such as stone elephants. Later abandoned due to bad water supply.

  • Shah Jahan had to the TajMahal built to be his wife’s tomb.


  • Foreign trade- establishment of trading outposts in India


  • In 1526, the Mughal Empire begins; will last 300 years

  • Gradually over the course of the dynasty, more and more of India is united until almost the whole subcontinent was united except for a small region at the southern tip

  • Increased foreign trade; formation of trading outposts at cities


  • Like the Delhi Sultanate before, all rulers during the Mughal dynasty were Muslim


1750 - 1914


  • East India Company takes advantage of Mughal weakness to expand trading posts, where merchants won official rights to rule.

  • Enforced rule with small British army and large number of Indian troops- sepoys

The Sepoy Mutiny- 1857

  • Sepoys receive new rifle cartridges in animal fat. British told them to tear it off with their teeth: Hindu would not because what if it came from cows, which they held sacred. Muslim would not because what if it came from pigs, which they considered foul.

  • After Sepoy Mutiny, British gov’t took away control from East India Company and imposed direct imperial rule

  • The Indian National Congress (1885) was a group of well-educated Indians who started the path towards independence

  • Joined forces with the All-India Muslim League in 1916


  • British empire of India grew out of mercantile activities of the East India Company- monopoly on English trade with India.

  • British encouraged cultivation of tea, coffee, and opium

  • British colonial rule transformed the production of cotton


  • Sati- the practice of widows burning themselves on their husbands’ funeral pyres

  • This was common among upper-class Hindus; this custom was banned in 1829 under pressure of E.I.C.


  • Ram Mohan Roy- “the father of modern India.” he helped create a sense of Indian identity, and wanted a society based on modern European science and Indian tradition of devotional Hinduism

  • Supported end of sati, and worked with Christian reformers to improve status of women


  • Interaction between India and British started with trade in the British East India Company

  • Because of British rule, India became more connected with the global economic network


  • British built expensive railroad and telegraph networks that tightened links between India and the rest of the world


  • British colonialism in India brought an end to empire rule

  • British rule also brought new inventions to India, making them a bit more industrialized

  • Some of India’s customs were changed or banned because they did not fit with British laws or values


  • India had cultivated many of the crops long before the British had come, but British rule transformed the production of crops like cotton

  • India’s religions continued (Hindu and Muslim) even though Britain tried to bring in Christian missionaries

1914 - Present


  • 1914-Start of Great War

  • 1920-Non-Cooperation Movement under Mohandas Gandhi

  • 1930-Civil Disobedience Movement led by Gandhi

  • 1935- Government of India Act- Gave India institutions of a self-governing state

  • 1946- Day of Direct Action

  • 1947- Indian Independence and Partition into Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan;

    Establishment of democratic rule

  • 1947-1991- Cold War- Indian nonalignment

  • 1966-1977- Indira Gandhi as prime minister;

    “Green Revolution”- increased agricultural yields, but increased poverty

  • 1974- India explodes first atomic bomb

  • 1998- Indian National Congress (Congress Party) is replaced by Hindu nationalist party



  • Indian National Congress—national political party

  • Muslim League-> competition with Congress Party for power

  • Independence from Great Britain 1947

  • Divided into India and Pakistan to solve conflict between Hindus and Muslims

  • Established world’s largest democracy

  • Battle for Kashmir

  • Nonalignment during Cold War

  • Resentment towards China after revolt in Tibet failed-> fought over unclear borders in 1962


  • Main export- textiles and clothing

  • Boycott of British cloth, source of wealth for British

  • The Salt March

  • Green Revolution- increases agricultural yields worldwide


  • Mainly Hindu population

  • One million died in migration of Muslims to Pakistan and Hindus to India after partition

  • Conflict between Hindus and Muslims—power struggle-> fear of one dominating the other


  • Civil disobedience led by Gandhi

  • Importance of caste system in society

  • Women gains equality in Constitution of India

  • Overpopulation leads to policy of involuntary sterilization by government


  • Globalization and incorporation into world trade

  • Did not choose sides during Cold War

    Arts/ Accomplishments

  • English official language in education and government

  • Spinning wheel on flag represented importance of textiles in India

  • Achieved independence from Great Britain.


  • Indian independence in 1947 ended almost 90 years of British imperial rule

  • India divided into Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan

  • After its independence, India begins to modernize and by 1974 tests its first nuclear weapons.

  • Hindu Nationalist Party replaces Indian National Congress who was in power since 1947

  • Role of women changed- can now participate in all kinds of activities— school, politics, media, etc— compared to previous ideals such as sati.


  • After independence, established democratic rule and has maintained it to this day

  • Religious conflict between Hindu and Muslims still exist

  • Overpopulation, despite Indira Gandhi’s attempt in birth control policies

  • Poverty is widespread

  • Battle for region of Kashmir- which has a Hindu leader with a majority Muslim population

  • Resentment between India and China over Tibetian incident

the end.

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