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Chapter 4 Electron Configurations

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Chapter 4 Electron Configurations

- No two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers.

- An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it.

- Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin

Generally symbolized by n, it denotes the shell (energy level) in which the electron is located.

- Number of electrons that can fit in a shell:2n2

- The angular momentum quantum number, generally symbolized by l, denotes the orbital (subshell) in which the electron is located

- The magnetic quantum number, generally symbolized by m, denotes the orientation of the electron’s orbital with respect to the three axes in space.

- Spin quantum number denotes the behavior (direction of spin) of an electron within a magnetic field.
- Possibilities for electron spin:
+1/2 or – 1/2

Orbital filling table

- Electron configuration of the elements of the first three series

Irregular confirmations of Cr and Cu

Chromium steals a 4s electron to half

fill its 3d sublevel

Copper steals a 4s electron to FILL

its 3d sublevel

- 3 rules for adding electrons to orbitals
- Aufbau principle: an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital hat can receive it
- Pauli exclusion principle: no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
- Hund’s rule: orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbital must have the same spin

- The electron configuration for boron is 1s22s22p1
- How many electrons are present in an atom of boron?
- What is the atomic number?
- Write the orbital notation for boron
___ ___

1s 2s 2px2py2pz

1s2s 2px 2py 2pz

- Write the orbital notation for Carbon
__ __ __ ___ ___

1s 2s 2px2py2pz

- This is a short hand notation
- [Ne]3s23p1 for the element Al

- Read section 4.3
- Pg 116 section review #1-5
- Pg 118 # 18, 19, 20, 23, 24