Chapter 4 electron configurations
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Chapter 4 Electron Configurations. Pauli Exclusion Principle. No two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers. Aufbau principle. An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it. . Hund’s Rule.

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Pauli exclusion principle
Pauli Exclusion Principle

  • No two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers.


Aufbau principle
Aufbau principle

  • An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it.


Hund s rule
Hund’s Rule

  • Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin


Principal quantum number
Principal Quantum Number

Generally symbolized by n, it denotes the shell (energy level) in which the electron is located.

  • Number of electrons that can fit in a shell:2n2


Angular momentum quantum number
Angular Momentum Quantum Number

  • The angular momentum quantum number, generally symbolized by l, denotes the orbital (subshell) in which the electron is located


Magnetic quantum number
Magnetic Quantum Number

  • The magnetic quantum number, generally symbolized by m, denotes the orientation of the electron’s orbital with respect to the three axes in space.


Spin quantum number
Spin Quantum Number

  • Spin quantum number denotes the behavior (direction of spin) of an electron within a magnetic field.

  • Possibilities for electron spin:

    +1/2 or – 1/2




Irregular confirmations of Cr and Cu series

Chromium steals a 4s electron to half

fill its 3d sublevel

Copper steals a 4s electron to FILL

its 3d sublevel


4 3 electron configuration
4.3 Electron Configuration series

  • 3 rules for adding electrons to orbitals

  • Aufbau principle: an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital hat can receive it

  • Pauli exclusion principle: no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers

  • Hund’s rule: orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbital must have the same spin


Representing electron configuration
Representing electron configuration series

  • The electron configuration for boron is 1s22s22p1

  • How many electrons are present in an atom of boron?

  • What is the atomic number?

  • Write the orbital notation for boron

     ___ ___

    1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz


Practice write the electron configuration notation for nitrogen
Practice: write the electron configuration notation for nitrogen

  

1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz


Orbital notation
Orbital Notation nitrogen

  • Write the orbital notation for Carbon

    __ __ __ ___ ___

    1s 2s 2px 2py 2pz


Noble gas configuration
Noble Gas Configuration nitrogen

  • This is a short hand notation

  • [Ne]3s23p1 for the element Al


Homework
Homework nitrogen

  • Read section 4.3

  • Pg 116 section review #1-5

  • Pg 118 # 18, 19, 20, 23, 24


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