Chapter 4 electron configurations
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Chapter 4 Electron Configurations. Pauli Exclusion Principle. No two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers. Aufbau principle. An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it. . Hund’s Rule.

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Chapter 4 Electron Configurations

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Chapter 4 electron configurations

Chapter 4 Electron Configurations


Pauli exclusion principle

Pauli Exclusion Principle

  • No two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers.


Aufbau principle

Aufbau principle

  • An electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it.


Hund s rule

Hund’s Rule

  • Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin


Principal quantum number

Principal Quantum Number

Generally symbolized by n, it denotes the shell (energy level) in which the electron is located.

  • Number of electrons that can fit in a shell:2n2


Angular momentum quantum number

Angular Momentum Quantum Number

  • The angular momentum quantum number, generally symbolized by l, denotes the orbital (subshell) in which the electron is located


Magnetic quantum number

Magnetic Quantum Number

  • The magnetic quantum number, generally symbolized by m, denotes the orientation of the electron’s orbital with respect to the three axes in space.


Spin quantum number

Spin Quantum Number

  • Spin quantum number denotes the behavior (direction of spin) of an electron within a magnetic field.

  • Possibilities for electron spin:

    +1/2 or – 1/2


Chapter 4 electron configurations

Orbital filling table


Chapter 4 electron configurations

  • Electron configuration of the elements of the first three series


Chapter 4 electron configurations

Irregular confirmations of Cr and Cu

Chromium steals a 4s electron to half

fill its 3d sublevel

Copper steals a 4s electron to FILL

its 3d sublevel


4 3 electron configuration

4.3 Electron Configuration

  • 3 rules for adding electrons to orbitals

  • Aufbau principle: an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital hat can receive it

  • Pauli exclusion principle: no two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers

  • Hund’s rule: orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbital must have the same spin


Representing electron configuration

Representing electron configuration

  • The electron configuration for boron is 1s22s22p1

  • How many electrons are present in an atom of boron?

  • What is the atomic number?

  • Write the orbital notation for boron

     ___ ___

    1s 2s 2px2py2pz


Practice write the electron configuration notation for nitrogen

Practice: write the electron configuration notation for nitrogen

  

1s2s 2px 2py 2pz


Orbital notation

Orbital Notation

  • Write the orbital notation for Carbon

    __ __ __ ___ ___

    1s 2s 2px2py2pz


Noble gas configuration

Noble Gas Configuration

  • This is a short hand notation

  • [Ne]3s23p1 for the element Al


Homework

Homework

  • Read section 4.3

  • Pg 116 section review #1-5

  • Pg 118 # 18, 19, 20, 23, 24


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