Lateral neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer
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Lateral neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer. Joint hospital Surgical Grand Round 19 October 2013 Dr. Dennis CT Lam United Christian Hospital. Outline. Introduction Lateral neck dissection (LND) for PTC Indication of LND Extent of LND Morbidity of LND Conclusion. Introduction.

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Lateral neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer

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Lateral neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer

Lateral neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer

Joint hospital Surgical Grand Round

19 October 2013

Dr. Dennis CT LamUnited Christian Hospital


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction

  • Lateral neck dissection (LND) for PTC

  • Indication of LND

  • Extent of LND

  • Morbidity of LND

  • Conclusion


Introduction

Introduction

  • Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) composed of 77-85% of thyroid malignancies

  • Strong propensity for regional LN involvement

A National Cancer Data Base report on 53,856 cases of thyroid carcinoma treated in the U.S., 1985–1995.

Hundahl SA, et al. Cancer 1998.


Anatomy of cervical lymphatic

Anatomy of Cervical Lymphatic

American Thyroid Association Guidelines Taskforce on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer


Lnd in ptc

LND in PTC

  • Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC)

  • Lateral neck dissection (LND)

    • To dissect/ not to dissect

    • Extent of dissection


Patterns of nodal metastases

Patterns of Nodal Metastases

  • Central compartment

  • Lateral compartment

  • Contralateral neck

  • Pattern of lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  • GimmO, et al. Br J Surg1998.


Usual scenario

Usual scenario

  • Lateral compartment +ve

  • Central compartment +ve

  • Tumor in middle and lower poles

  • Lymph node dissection in the lateral neck for completion in central node-positive papillary thyroid cancer.

  • Machens A, et al. Surgery 2009.


Concept of skip metastasis

Concept of skip metastasis

  • Lateral compartment +ve

  • Central compartment –ve

  • Tumor in upper pole

  • Skip lateral neck node metastases in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Park JH, et al. World J Surg 2012.


Patterns of nodal metastases1

Patterns of Nodal Metastases

  • 7%-19% skip metastasis

  • Central cervical nodal metastasis from papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: pattern and factors predictive of nodal metastasis. Roh JL, et al. Ann Surg Oncol 2008.


Detection and diagnosis

Detection and Diagnosis

  • Physical examination

  • Ultrasonography

  • FNA cytology


Significance of ln metastasis

Significance of LN metastasis


To dissect not to dissect

To dissect/ not to dissect?


Therapeutic prophylactic

Therapeutic / Prophylactic

  • Therapeutic dissection

    • Presence of clinically positive LNs

  • Prophylactic dissection

    • Absence of clinically positive LNs

    • To clear occult LN metastases

    • Controversial, as lack of evidence to improve survival


Prophylactic dissection

Prophylactic dissection

  • Primary tumor located in the upper pole

  • Extensive involvement of the ipsilateral central compartment

Surgical management of the lateral neck compartment for metastatic thyroid cancer.

Dralle H, et al. Current Opinion in Oncology. 25(1):20-6, 2013 Jan.


High risk patient group

High risk patient group

  • Older age

  • Male gender

  • Extra-thyroidal extension

  • Tumor multi-focality

  • Tumor calcification

  • Larger tumor size

  • Advanced stage tumor

  • Central node positivity

Surgical management of cervical lymph nodes in differentiated thyroid cancer

Danielle Fritze, et al. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2010.


Extent of lateral neck dissection

Extent of lateralneck dissection


Extent of lateral neck dissection1

Extent of lateral neck dissection

  • Selective ‘berry picking’ is associated with higher rates of loco-regional recurrence and has been largely abandoned

Greater local recurrence occurs with ‘berry picking’ than neck dissection in thyroid cancer.

Musacchio MJ, et al. Am Surg 2003; 69:191–196.


Supra hyoid dissection level i

Supra-hyoid dissection (Level I)

  • Less than 5% of patients had supra-hyoid involvement in patients with lateral cervical metastases

  • Not routinely included in lymph node dissections unless there is macroscopic involvement

Lateral cervical lymph node metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma: pattern of nodal metastases and optimal strategy for neck dissection.

Roh JL, et al. Ann Surg Oncol 2008;15(4):1177–82.


Lateral neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer

  • Most lateral compartment dissections routinely encompass levels II–V

Patterns of lateral neck metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Kupferman ME, et al.

Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2004


Lateral neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer

  • Lateral cervical lymph node metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma: pattern of nodal metastases and optimal strategy for neck dissection. Roh JL, et al. Ann Surg Oncol 2008.

  • Tumor above the spinal accessory nerve in papillary thyroid cancer that involves lateral neck nodes: a common occurrence. Pingpank JF Jr, et al. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2002.

  • Regional metastases in well-differentiated thyroid cancer: pattern of spread. Yanir Y, et al. Laryngoscope 2008.


Level iia iii iv

Level IIa, III, IV

  • Levels IIa, III, and VI were each involved in more than 70% of patients

Lateral cervical lymph node metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma: pattern of nodal metastases and optimal strategy for neck dissection.

Roh JL, et al. Ann Surg Oncol 2008.


Lateral neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer

  • Cervical lateral neck metastases in PTC occur in a predictable pattern, with levels III, IIa, and IV most commonly involved

Is routine dissection of level II-B and V-A necessary in patients with papillary thyroid cancer undergoing lateral neck dissection for FNA-confirmed metastases in other levels.

Farrag T, et al. World Journal of Surgery. 33(8):1680-3, 2009 Aug.


Level ii

Level II


Level iib

Level IIb

  • Only 16.7% of patients had positive nodes at level IIb

  • Involvement was associated with multilevel disease in all cases

Lateral cervical lymph node metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma: pattern of nodal metastases and optimal strategy for neck dissection.

Roh JL, et al. Ann Surg Oncol 2008;15(4):1177–82.


Level iib1

Level IIb

  • ‘’….the incidence of LN metastases at level IIb was 2.1%...........the results of the present study suggested that LN metastases in level IIb are rare in patients with PTC undergoing neck dissection’’

Level IIb lymph node metastasis in thyroid papillary carcinoma.

Vayisoglu Y, et al. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 2010.


Level iib2

Level IIb

  • ‘’…level IIb was positive in 8.5%…elective dissection of level IIb only when level IIa is involved, based on FNA confirmation, or when it is grossly involved on intraoperative evaluation’’

Is routine dissection of level II-B and V-A necessary in patients with papillary thyroid cancer undergoing lateral neck dissection for FNA-confirmed metastases in other levels.

Farrag T, et al. World Journal of Surgery. 33(8):1680-3, 2009 Aug.


Level v

Level V


Level v1

Level V

  • ‘’Level V lymphadenectomy may be considered in patients with lymph node metastasis in the ipsilateral lateral neck with macroscopic extranodal extension’’

Preoperative detection and predictors of level V lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma

Kirkby-Bott J. British Journal of Surgery. 100(4):503-4, 2013 Mar.


Level v2

Level V

  • ‘’Level V lymphadenectomy may be omitted in the treatment of PTC patients if positive nodes are not found on histologic exam (frozen section analysis) or by ultrasonography in level IV’’

  • ‘’Not all patients with PTC required dissection of level I and V, decreasing the overall surgical complication rate‘’

Occult lymph node metastases in neck level V in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Lim YC et al. Surgery. 2010 Feb

Selective modified radical neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer: is level I, II and V dissection always necessary?

Caron NR, et al. World J Surg 2006


Va vb

Va/ Vb

  • ‘…the upper posterior triangle (Level Va) is less likely to harbor occult tumor’

Management of lateral cervical metastases in papillary thyroid cancer: patterns of lymph node distribution.

King, J Michael et al. Ear, Nose & Throat Journal, Aug 2011


Va vb1

Va/ Vb

  • ‘’…. a selective neck dissection of levels IIa, III, IV and Vb in N0 neck PTC is sufficient for clearance of occult metastases’’

Pattern of lateral neck metastases in N0 papillary thyroid carcinoma. Vincent Patron et al.

BMC cancer 2011


Morbidity of lateral neck dissection

Morbidity of lateral neck dissection


Morbidity

Morbidity

  • Chyle leakage

  • Spinal assessory nerve damage

  • Carotid artery rupture

  • Nerve injury


International guidelines

International guidelines


International guidelines1

International guidelines


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Skip metastasis may occur in PTC

  • Prophylactic LND is controversial

  • Therapeutic LND includes Level II to V as gold standard

  • It’s important to strike a balance between oncological benefit and surgical risk in the extent of selective neck dissection


The end

The End


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