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EOCT Content Descriptors . CRAM SESSION 2012. Cells . 17-18%. Prokaryotic v. Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic Always single-celled No nucleus or organelles Ex. bacteria, archaebactera Eukaryotic Single-celled or mulitcellular Nucleus and organelles Ex. plants, animals, fungi, protist.

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EOCT Content Descriptors

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Eoct content descriptors

EOCT Content Descriptors

CRAM SESSION 2012


Cells

Cells

17-18%

  • Prokaryotic v. Eukaryotic Cells

    • Prokaryotic

      • Always single-celled

      • No nucleus or organelles

      • Ex. bacteria, archaebactera

    • Eukaryotic

      • Single-celled or mulitcellular

      • Nucleus and organelles

      • Ex. plants, animals, fungi, protist


Cells1

Cells

17-18%

  • Common Organelles

    • Nucleus – contains DNA; controls cellular functions

    • Nucleolus – in nucleus; makes ribosomes

    • Chloroplasts – capture energy from sun; photosynthesis occurs here

    • Mitochondria – powerhouse of the cell; cellular respiration occurs here; makes ATP


Cells2

Cells

17-18%

  • Common Organelles

    • Golgi apparatus – modifies, sorts & ships proteins and lipids (UPS)

    • Ribosomes – makes proteins

    • ER – transports materials through the cells (rough & smooth)

    • Vacuole – storage; large in plant cells

    • Lysosome – contains digestive sacs


Cells3

Cells

17-18%

  • Cell Membrane

    • Selectively permeable

      • Controls what goes in and out of cell

    • Helps maintain HOMEOSTASIS

      • “stable internal environment”


Cells4

Cells

17-18%

  • Passive Transport

    • Does NOT require energy

    • Types

      • Diffusion – movement of substances from high concentration to low concentration

      • Osmosis – movement of WATER

      • Facilitated Diffusion – movement of substances with the help of a carrier molecule


Cells5

Cells

17-18%

  • Active Transport

    • Does require energy

    • Movement of molecules from low concentration to high concentration

    • Types

      • Endocytosis – “cell eating”; takes in materials

      • Exocytosis – removes materials from cell


Cells6

Cells

17-18%

  • Macromolecules

    • Carbohydrates

      • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (1:2:1)

      • “sugar” – monomer

      • Ex. Glucose, starch, cellulose

      • Used for ENERGY

    • Lipids

      • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (no ratio)

      • Fatty acids – monomer

      • Ex. Fats and oils

      • Used to Store ENERGY


Cells7

Cells

17-18%

  • Macromolecules

    • Proteins

      • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen

      • Amino acids - monomer

      • Required for daily cellular functions

      • Ex. Enzymes, collagen, hemoglobin, insulin

    • Nucleic Acids

      • Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphate

      • Nucleotides – monomer

      • Transmit genetic information

      • Ex. DNA & RNA


Cells8

Cells

17-18%

  • Enzymes

    • Type of protein

    • Catalyst (speed up chemical reactions)

    • Lowers activation energy

    • Are NOT part of the reaction

    • Usually end in “ase”

    • Lock & Key

      • Binds with specific substrate


Organisms

Organisms

17-18%

  • Energy

    • All organisms require energy in order to sustain life

    • The Sun is the primary source of energy

    • ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

      • Contains 3 phosphates

      • Energy is released when one phosphate is removed (becoming ADP)


Organisms1

Organisms

17-18%

  • Photosynthesis

    • Process used by producers (autotrophs) including plants and algae

    • Occurs in the chloroplasts

    • Sunlight (light energy) + carbon dioxide + water -> glucose + oxygen + chemical energy

    • Two Main Reactions

      • Light Reactions (trap the sunlight - chlorophyll)

      • Calvin Cycle (form the simple sugars)


Organisms2

Organisms

17-18%

  • Cellular Respiration

    • All organisms use this to make ATP

    • Occurs in mitochondria

    • Chemical energy + glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + mechanical energy (ATP)

    • Two Main Reactions

      • Krebs Cycle – breaks down products of reaction

      • Electron Transport Chain – coverts ADP to ATP


Organisms3

Organisms

17-18%

  • Classification (Linneaus)

    • Based on similarities of organisms

    • Kingdom

      • Phylum

        • Class

          • Order

            • Family

              • Genus

                • Species (reproduce & have fertile offspring)


Organisms4

Organisms

17-18%

  • Archaebacteria

    • Prokaryotic

    • unicellular

    • Found in extreme environments (deep oceans, hot springs, swamps)

  • Eubacteria

    • Prokaryotic

    • unicellular

    • Found everywhere

    • Some cause disease, most are beneficial


Organisms5

Organisms

17-18%

  • Protists

    • Eukaryotic

    • Unicellular or multicellular

    • Some producers, some consumers

    • Live in moist environments

  • Fungi

    • Eukaryotic

    • Unicellular or multicellular

    • Decomposers (absorb nutrients from environment)


Organisms6

Organisms

17-18%

  • Plants

    • Eukaryotic

    • Multicellular

    • Producers

    • Cellulose in cell walls

  • Animals

    • Eukaryotic

    • Multicellular

    • Consumers


Organisms7

Organisms

17-18%

  • Viruses

    • Infectious particle made of a capsid, and DNA or RNA

    • Are NOT considered living because they cannot reproduce without a host cell

    • Do not contain organelles


Genetics

Genetics

25%

  • DNA

    • Made up of monomers called nucleotides

    • Three parts:

      • Sugar (deoxyribose)

      • Phosphate group

      • Nitrogen Base (A – T, C – G)

    • Structure is a Double Helix

    • In eukaryotic cells DNA is found in nucleus, in prokaryotic cells it is floating in the cytoplasm


Genetics1

Genetics

25%

  • DNA

    • Replication – makes a copy of itself

      • Occurs during Interphase before the nucleus divides (mitosis)

      • Steps

        • DNA unzips

        • Free floating nucleotides comes in to base pair

        • DNA polymerase (enzyme) bonds new nucleotides together

      • Replication is semiconservative (half original strand, half new strand)


Genetics2

Genetics

25%

  • RNA

    • Made up of nucleotides

    • Three Parts:

      • Sugar (ribose)

      • Phosphate group

      • Nitrogen base (A – U, C – G)

    • Structure is a single strand

    • Used in transcription & translation


Genetics3

Genetics

25%

  • RNA

    • Three Types

      • Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries the message from the DNA to a ribosome

      • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) the ribosome where a protein will be made

      • Transfer RNA (tRNA) brings amino acids from cytoplasm to make the growing protein


Genetics4

Genetics

25%

  • RNA

    • Transcription

      • Occurs in the nucleus

      • Using the DNA to write the mRNA or message of how a protein should look

      • mRNA must leave the nucleus to find a ribosome (rRNA)

    • Translation

      • Occurs in the cytoplasm

      • Translate the message from the DNA into a protein

      • Reads info in sets of 3 (codons)


Genetics5

Genetics

25%

  • Mendel’s Laws (key terms)

    • Alleles: alternative forms of genes

    • Dominant: trait that will show

    • Recessive: will only show if two are present

    • Genotype: the actual genes for an organism

    • Phenotype: the physical traits seen based on the genes for a particular trait

    • Homozygous: both alleles are the same

    • Heterozygous: alleles are different (one dominant, one recessive)


Genetics6

Genetics

25%

  • Mendel’s Laws

    • Law of Dominance

      • Dominant alleles will keep recessive alleles from showing

      • Recessive alleles are only shown when both alleles are recessive

    • Law of Segregation

      • States gene pairs separate when gametes are formed so each gamete (sex cell) has only one allele for each pair

    • Law of Independent Assortment

      • States different pairs of genes separate independently of each other when gametes form


Genetics7

Genetics

25%

  • Practice Punnett Squares


Genetics8

Genetics

25%

  • Meiosis

    • Diploid cell forms 4 haploid cells

    • Gametes are produced

    • Each gamete is genetically unique

    • Crossing over – two chromosomes physically overlap and exchange chromosome material


Genetics9

Genetics

25%

  • Mutations

    • Change in the DNA sequence

    • May cause a change in the protein resulting from the genetic code for that gene

    • Some Causes:

      • UV light

      • Radiation

      • Tobacco products & other chemical

    • Causes are called mutagens

    • May also occur because of a replication error


Genetics10

Genetics

25%

  • Mutations

    • Types

      • Substitution (Point Mutation)

      • Insertion & Deletion (Frameshift Mutation)

    • Not all are harmful, some may be beneficial and help in the process of natural selection


Genetics11

Genetics

25%

  • Asexual Reproduction

    • One parent

    • Produces offspring identical to parent

    • Mitosis

    • Quicker than sexual reproduction

    • Advantage in a stable environment where genotype of parent is well-suited


Genetics12

Genetics

25%

  • Sexual Reproduction

    • Two parents

    • Produces offspring genetically unique to each parent

    • Meiosis

    • Advantage in a rapidly changing environment

    • Some offspring will have greater advantage over others


Genetics13

Genetics

25%

  • DNA Technology in Industries

    • Genetically engineered bacteria to clean up oil spills, manufacture alcohol, process minerals

    • Forensics

      • DNA fingerprinting

      • Crime scene evidence


Genetics14

Genetics

25%

  • DNA Technology in Medicine

    • Replace damaged genes in patients

    • Locate and correct “cancer” genes and other diseases

    • Using recombinant DNA in bacteria to produce insulin

  • DNA Technology in Agriculture

    • Produce plants with desirable traits

    • Genetically modified crops to yield more product

    • Disease and pest resistant crops


Ecology

Ecology

25%

  • Ecology Key Terms

    • Population – all organisms of the same species in a given area

    • Community – more than one population in a given area

    • Ecosystem – all biotic (living) & abiotic (nonliving) factors in a given area

    • Biome – group of ecosystems found in the same region


Ecology1

Ecology

25%

  • Energy Flow

    • Food Chain

      • Shows how energy flows through a single feeding relationship

      • grass-> grasshopper -> frog -> snake -> hawk

    • Food Web

      • Shows energy flow through multiple feeding relationships

    • Energy Pyramid

      • Shows how energy decreases at each successional level (by 10%)


Ecology2

Ecology

25%

  • Energy Flow

    • Nutrient Cycling

      • Energy cannot be recycled (we cannot add light energy to the sun)

      • Matter can be recycled:

        • Carbon through the carbon cycle (think of how photosynthesis & cellular respiration cycle carbon)

        • Nitrogen through nitrogen fixation (think of how nitrogen in the air is converted to ammonia by bacteria then those bacteria help to break down or decaying matter and release nitrogen back into the air)


Ecology3

Ecology

25%

  • Human Impacts

    • Global Warming

      • Caused by burning of fossil fuels that put excess carbon dioxide into the atmosphere

      • This contributes to the greenhouse effect which is believed to cause Global Warming

    • Explosive Population

      • Overcrowding of humans causes more wastes to be created therefore causing a higher demand for recycling and reusing of materials


Ecology4

Ecology

25%

  • Pesticide & Herbicide Use


Ecology5

Ecology

25%

  • Renewable Resources

    • A natural source that can be replaced or replenished quickly

    • Ex. Water, wind, crops, livestock,

  • Nonrenewable Resources

    • A natural resource that cannot be replaced as quickly as it is used

    • Ex. Oil, metals, minerals, fossil fuels


Ecology6

Ecology

25%

  • Plant Tropisms

    • “plant’s response to its environment”

    • Phototropism – response to light

    • Thigmotropism – response to touch

    • Geotropism – response to gravity (gravitropism)


Ecology7

Ecology

25%

  • Animal Behavior

    • “anything an animal does in response to its environment”

    • Reflex – automatic response that do not require thinking

    • Territorial Behavior

      • Territory – breeding grounds, feeding area

    • Migration - instinctive, seasonal movement of a species

    • Learned behavior – result of previous experience


Ecology8

Ecology

25%

  • Animal Behavior

    • Mechanical Defense

      • Physical structures such as, claws, tusks, stingers, shells

      • Coloration

    • Chemical Defense

      • Neurotoxins

      • Bad taste


Evolution

Evolution

14-15%

  • Geologic History of Species

    • Biodiversity – variety of organisms, their genetic information, and the communities they live in

    • Ancestry

      • Homologous structures – similar in structure, not function

      • Analogous structures – perform a similar function, not similar in structure

      • Vestigial structure – remnants of organs that had functions in an early ancestor


Evolution1

Evolution

14-15%

  • Geologic History of Species

    • Rates of Evolution

      • Speciation – evolution of a new species that occurs due to changes in the gene flow in a population

      • Gradualism – evolution that occurs over a long period of time when adaptive changes accumulate slowly and steadily over time in a population

      • Punctuated equilibrium – speciation occurs quickly in rapid bursts, with long periods of stability


Evolution2

Evolution

14-15%

  • Evidence that Supports Theory of Evolution

    • Fossil Record – remains of hard parts of an organism

      • Shells, bones, cell walls of plants

    • Biochemistry

      • Radioisotope dating (half lives)


Evolution3

Evolution

14-15%

  • Evidence that Supports Theory of Evolution

    • Embryonic Development

      • Larva of different organisms are similar or look the same, but their adult bodies are very different

    • Homologous Structures

      • Similar in structure, not in function


Evolution4

Evolution

14-15%

  • Natural Selection

    • Survival of the Fittest

    • Results in adaptations that allow populations to survive in their environments

    • Acts on the phenotype (indirectly the genotype)


Evolution5

Evolution

14-15%

  • Natural Selection

    • Stabilizing Selection

      • Responsible for maintaining the status quo for an organism’s genetic makeup in an environment

    • Directional Selection

      • Changes from one phenotypic property to a new one

      • Resistance to pesticides – those insects able to survive will pass on that gene to their offspring


Evolution6

Evolution

14-15%

  • Natural Selection

    • Disruptive Selection

      • Disappearance of forms that are considered intermediate between several extreme environments

      • Splits a species into two or more groups by strongly selecting against the average phenotypes


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