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ONE. The Evolution of Criminal Investigation and Criminalistics. LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Explain the importance of the Bow Street Runners Discuss the contribution of Sir Robert Peel’s reform to early policing in the United States

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One

ONE

The Evolution of Criminal Investigation and Criminalistics


Learning objectives

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

  • Explain the importance of the Bow Street Runners

  • Discuss the contribution of Sir Robert Peel’s reform to early policing in the United States

  • Explain the history and function of the Pinkerton National Detective Agency

  • Highlight the first major federal investigative agencies and their responsibilities

  • Explain the impact of Supreme Court's "due process revolution" and its impact on policing

  • Discuss Bertillon’s method of anthropometry

  • Summarize the historical development of fingerprint identification

  • Explain the concept and practice of DNA typing

  • Outline the milestones in the development of firearms identification

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The bow street runners

THE BOW STREET RUNNERS

  • Small group of volunteers/non-uniformed homeowners

  • Established in 1750 by Henry Fielding/called "Take Thieves"

  • Hurry to scene of crime and begin investigation

  • First modern detective force

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Sir robert peel

SIR ROBERT PEEL

  • His efforts led to the establishment of a Metropolitan police force for London

  • Peel is considered the father of modern policing

  • Many of his reforms are part of policing today in America

  • Peel was considered a skillful administrator with vision

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Peel s principles

PEEL’S PRINCIPLES

  • The police must be stable, efficient, organized along military lines.

  • The police must be under government control.

  • The absence of crime best proves efficiency of police.

  • The distribution of crime news is essential.

  • The deployment of police strength over time and area is essential.

  • No quality is more indispensable to a police officer than a perfect command of temper.

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Peel s principles cont d

PEEL’S PRINCIPLES (cont'd)

  • Good appearance commands respect.

  • Securing and training proper people is the root of efficiency.

  • Public security demands every police officer be given a number.

  • Police headquarters should be centrally located/easily accessible.

  • Police should be hired on a probationary basis.

  • Police records are necessary to the correctly distribute police strength.

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Detectives in the u s evolved in the private sector

DETECTIVES IN THE U.S. EVOLVED IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR

  • Graft/corruption common in big city police departments

  • Municipal police jurisdictions were limited.

  • Little communication between police departments in different cities.

  • Offenders could flee from one jurisdiction to another

  • Private sector detectives like Pinkerton’s developed

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Pinkerton at work

PINKERTON AT WORK

  • Protected President-elect Lincoln

  • Operated an intelligence service for the union army

  • Pursued bank and railroad robbers

  • Created extensive criminal records

  • Provided a good model for government detectives

(Courtesy Pinkerton’s Archives)

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Early federal investigative agencies

EARLY FEDERAL INVESTIGATIVE AGENCIES

1865Secret Service created to combat counterfeiting

1903After assassination of McKinley responsibility for presidential protection was added

1908Bureau of Investigation became F.B.I. 1924/Hover

1920Internal Revenue responsible for Prohibition enforcement

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Due process revolution

DUE PROCESS REVOLUTION

  • Cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court, 1961-1966

  • Known as due process revolution

  • Active in cases involving rights of suspects/defendants

  • Miranda, Mapp v. Ohio, Terry decisions impact police

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Nypd rogues gallery

NYPD ROGUES’ GALLERY

  • N.Y.P.D. established Rogues' Gallery in 1857

  • Photographs of known offenders were included

  • Photos were arranged by their criminal specialty and height

  • Used by detectives to recognize criminals on the street

(Courtesy Library of Congress)

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Anthropometry

ANTHROPOMETRY

  • First method of criminal identification thought to be reliable; based on a criteria of body measurements

  • Developed by Bertillon (1853-1916)/father of criminal identification

  • After 1883 the system was adopted throughout Europe

  • System was abandoned because dactylography (fingerprint identification) simpler, more reliable

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Henry bertillon and a bertillon measurement

HENRY BERTILLON AND A BERTILLON MEASUREMENT

(Courtesy Library of Congress)

(Courtesy Jacques Ganthial)

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Milestones in the development of dactylography

MILESTONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF DACTYLOGRAPHY

1684England’s Dr. Grew observes pores and ridges in hands and feet

1823Perkinje develops nine standard fingerprint patterns and classification system

1892Galton publishes “Fingerprints,” first definitive book on dactylography

1894Vucetich publishes “Dictiloscopia Comparada”, outlining his system

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Milestones in the development of dactylography cont

MILESTONES IN THE DEVELOPMENTOF DACTYLOGRAPHY (Cont.)

1900The Henry system was adopted in England

1901Henry publishes “Classification and Use of Fingerprints,” outlining his system of fingerprint classification

1903The Will West/William West case demonstrates the superiority of dactylography to anthropometry

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DNA

  • Deoxyribonucleic Acid, chemical blueprint which determines everything from our hair color to our disease vulnerabilities; with the exception of identical twins, each person has a unique DNA makeup

  • DNA is unique to individuals

  • The human sources of DNA are: blood and tissue; spermatozoa; bone marrow, tooth pulp and hair root cells

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Dna typing

DNA TYPING

  • DNA is a chemical blueprint

  • The Enderby cases were the first use DNA typing in England in 1987

  • The Orlando cases were the first used in the U.S. in1986

  • The FBI crime lab was the first public lab to use DNA analysis in 1988

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Milestones in firearms identification

MILESTONES IN FIREARMS IDENTIFICATION

1835Henry Goddard

First successful murderer identification from bullet removed from victim’s body

1889Professor Lacassagne identified grooves on a removed bullet removed from a corpse and matched it to a suspect’s weapon

1898Jeserich took microphotographs of fatal and test bullets

He testified the defendant’s revolver fired the fatal bullet

1926Calvin Goddard was most responsible for raising firearm identification to a science

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