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Alternate Revenue Overview. AFT School Health Leadership May 17, 2010 Washington, DC. Alternate Revenue Sources. Pursuit of funding always pays off- even if your proposal is not selected the first time. Can’t win the lottery if you don’t buy a ticket Can’t receive funding unless you pursue

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Alternate revenue overview

Alternate Revenue Overview

AFT School Health Leadership

May 17, 2010

Washington, DC

Alternate revenue sources

Alternate Revenue Sources

Pursuit of funding always pays off even if your proposal is not selected the first time

Pursuit of funding always pays off- even if your proposal is not selected the first time

  • Can’t win the lottery if you don’t buy a ticket

  • Can’t receive funding unless you pursue

  • Professionally and personally rewarding

  • Requires task focus and clarity of ideas

  • Critique of reviewers makes the second attempt stronger

Ensuring success

Ensuring Success

  • Innovation and Creativity is important

    • Looking for new solutions to old problems

    • Primary rule of brainstorming: every idea is a good idea

  • Contacting the Program Officer is critical

    • Between 80-90% of successful grant/funding seekers have had contact with the program officer

Sources of and purposes of revenue


Ebb and flow linked to political agenda

e.g. NCLB, IDEA, Race to the Top

Purpose and goal directed: you are told what to do


Ebb and flow linked to political agenda

Frequently linked to local issues and concerns

outsourcing work when staff is reduced and budgets are cut

Sources of and Purposes of Revenue

Private giving

Private Foundations

Altruistic purposes and goals: resources made available to address what matters to the foundation

advance a particular cause: Turn2 for children

Even in tough economy over billions distributed

often fund geographically


Altruistic purposes linked with corporate interests

Casts wider net to enhance its employment pool

improve corporate image: BP

Private Giving

Types of alternate revenue and funding

Types of Alternate Revenue and Funding

  • Grant

    • purpose is to transfer resources (money, property, services) from funding source to recipient in order to accomplish a specific purpose

    • Relationship between the funding source and the recipient defined by project purpose and goals

  • Cooperative Agreement

    • substantial collaboration between funding source and recipient

  • Contract or Purchased Services

    • Predefined outcomes and actions to achieve the outcomes

What is a grant

What is a Grant?

  • A grant involves funds disbursed by one party (Grant Makers), often a Government Department, Corporation, Foundation or Trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual .

  • The grant maker identifies the issue they want addressed, the recipient makes a proposal as to how that will be done.

  • The idea originates with the grant maker

  • The recipient defines the work to be done.

Grant vs contract


Funding agency defines issue or funding priority

project strategies defined by recipient

Recipient defines details as to who does what, when and how

Funding agency retains oversight


project and strategies prescribed by funding entity or agency

agency procures service of vendor

agency exercises direction or control

agency closely monitors

Grant vs. Contract

Types of grants

Types of Grants

  • Research or Program Evaluation

  • Curriculum

  • Demonstration or model programs

  • Professional Development and Training

  • Capital projects: Equipment,Technology etc

Qualities of effective grant writing

Qualities of Effective Grant Writing

  • Quality of the idea and its appeal to the funding source

  • The ability to communicate clearly and concisely

The process

A good idea or concept

A good fit for you and your agency

Identify team

Match your concept with a funding agency(ies)

Read the directions

Reread the directions-they don’t say what you want them to say

Speak with the program officer

Develop a detailed program plan

Develop a resource plan (budget) aligned with the program plan

Reread the directions

Write your proposal

The Process

Taking the concept or idea to implementation

Taking The Concept or Idea to Implementation

  • The concept or idea exists with you

  • The challenge is to transform the idea into a viable project which will be supported by funding agency

  • Connect your idea to current issues or concerns and identify a specific problem to be addressed or needs to be met

    e.g. bullying and cyberbullying or sexting

Finding a revenue or funding source

Finding a Revenue or Funding Source

  • Sign up for email alerts e.g.

  • Foundation Center Subscription

  • Agency Listserve

  • State Department of Education Notices

  • Other State Agencies (e.g.Dept of Health or Health and Human Services)

  • School District Endowment Funds e.g. Westerly RI

Is it the right source


Is your agency or LEA eligible?

Is there a $$ match requirement?

How many projects to be funded and at what level?


Who, what and where do they fund?

Money match?

Number of projects funded and at what level

Is it the Right Source?

More questions to ask

More Questions to Ask

  • Does the funding agency share your interest and goals?

  • Has the funding agency funded projects similar to yours?

  • Have they made awards to entities or LEAs similar to yours?

  • When will the award be made?

  • What are the reporting requirements?

Two rules in the workplace and in proposal writing

Two Rules in the workplace and in proposal writing:

  • Rule Number One: The Boss is Always Right

  • Rule Number Two: When in Doubt see rule One

  • Rule Number One: Read and Follow the Funding Requirements

  • Rule Number Two: When in doubt see rule number one

Following the directions

Following the Directions

  • You must follow the directions exactly.

  • Respond to all sections.

  • Adhere to any format restrictions.

  • Topics must be covered in the order presented in directions.

  • Use headings that correspond to the directions.

Speak with the program officer

Speak with the Program Officer!

The major variable in getting proposals funded is contact with the program officer prior to submission of a proposal.

Issues to consider before writing

Any Conflict of Interest?

Will this Involve Human Subjects?

Timelines and Due date

Page limits

Format: Spacing, page numbering, margins, font size and type

Letters of Support or Commitment?

Issues to Consider Before Writing

Employ grant writer yea or nay

Employ Grant Writer: Yea or Nay?

  • Ensure the needed knowledge and skill to make your grant application or proposal more competitive

  • Common technical errors may be avoided

  • A “pro” will write what is needed, we amateurs tend to write what we want

Typical sections or parts of a grant application or project proposal

Cover Page

Table of Contents


Problem or Needs Statement

Goals and Objectives

Project Design or Methodology

Quality of Key Personnel

Project or program Evaluation

Reporting and Dissemination

Budget: Financial plan and Narrative


Typical Sections or Parts of a Grant Application or Project Proposal

The title

The Title

  • Clear and concise to convey what the project is about

For example

For Example

  • “Tower Empowers”



  • Stand alone project description

  • APA quality for publication

  • Clear, concise, one page, single space

  • Do not use 1st person

  • Be sure to address all key elements/sections in order specified in the directions (read the directions)

The needs or problem statement

The Needs or Problem Statement

How does the data or evidence inform you that this is a problem or an issue?

The challenge what is it that you will overcome

The Challenge: What is it that you will overcome?

  • Convey to the funding agency that you:

  • Have identified and quantified the issue and that you understand the need and will meet this challenge and solve the problem

  • Use data to prove the need

    • cite evidence

    • illustrate with tables, graphs and charts

  • Translate the data into information

  • Use the information as the basis for your plan/proposal

  • The problem statement describing the issue problem or concern to be addressed

    The Problem Statement: Describing the issue, problem or concern to be addressed

    • Assume that you are not alone- someone else is thinking the same way

    • The Problem Statement is the foundation for your definition of the work you propose

    • The project goals, objectives, strategies, and evaluation must be clearly linked with the problem statement

    • Provide a thorough explanation of your need

      • test assumptions

      • anticipate questions of others

      • incorporate proposal guidelines

    • Begin with a framing statement then provide documentation

    • Assume that you are not alone- someone else is

    • thinking the same way

    • The Problem Statement is the foundation for your

    • definition of the work you propose

    • The project goals, objectives, strategies, and evaluation

    • must be clearly linked with the problem statement

    • Provide evidence (data) and an explanation of the need

      • based on that evidence

    When done well the problem statement will

    Convey to the reader that you understand the challenge or issue

    Illustrate to the reader this as an important issue for your school and community, other schools in the region and maybe even nationally

    Clearly and concisely describe what your project/proposal will do to solve the problem or specific aspects of the problem

    Show that your approach to this problem is creative and will fill the gaps in current system

    Describe how this project is a good fit for your school agency, how it is consistent with the mission, goals and plan of your school

    When done well the Problem Statement will:

    Brainstorm and structured inquiry what are we trying to address what do we know

    What significant needs have you identified?

    How will this project help address the identified need?

    Who will do what, when, where and how and at what cost?

    What is the discrepancy between what we know or what we are doing and what we want to know or want to be doing

    What does the literature and research say? Is this a significant issue locally, statewide, regionally, and or nationally?

    What previous work has been done to meet this need? Was it effective?

    Brainstorm and Structured InquiryWhat are we trying to address what do we know?

    Sample problem statement not likely to be funded

    Sample Problem Statement not likely to be funded

    Bullying Behavior:

    Middle school students exhibit significant bullying behavior which results in conflicts in and outside of school

    Sample problem statement more likely to be funded

    Sample Problem Statement more likely to be funded

    Bullying Behavior:

    There is a growing body of evidence which confirms that bullying behavior (including cyber bullying) is a significant concern in our schools. Over 40% of children have reported being bullied while online and over 33% report having been threatened.

    Components of a problem statement

    Components of a Problem Statement

    • The first sentence describes the issue or problem.

    • The problem or issue is clarified by defining the type and amount of the behavior

    • It confirms that this behavior needs to be addressed and that the funding agency will see measurable results from their investment

    Data and evidence

    Cite current research and/or literature

    8-10 significant citations

    If possible some of this work will have been yours!

    Key Information sources

    Case studies

    Statistics - objective


    Focus groups

    Use graphs, tables and charts

    Data and Evidence

    The late ernie harwell words that paint a picture

    The Late Ernie Harwell:Words that paint a picture

    "Baseball is a lot like life. It's a day-to-day existence, full of ups and downs. You make the most of your opportunities in baseball as you do in life."

    The Needs/Problem Statement must enable the reader to “see” exactly what is the issue

    Data used to create information which is used to document the need


    Number of children bullied per day, week, month or year

    Number who are threatened

    Number who are cyberbullied/threatened


    Impact of bullying behavior on victims and the perpetrator

    Illustrations, Charts and Tables

    Victimization by bullies

    threats in and outside of schools

    Threatening behavior

    increases in bullying behavior over the past 2, 5 10 years


    Impact of bullying behavior on school culture and environment and how it has changed over time

    Data used to create information which is used to document the need

    Organizing and writing the needs statement

    Organizing and Writing the Needs Statement

    • Make the case with the data and evidence

    • Follow the directions

    • Be clear and concise

    • Follow the directions

    • Paint a picture with words that result in a logical conclusion which then becomes the foundation for the project goals and objectives

    And finally

    And finally…

    The needs statement must:

    • Emphasize the significance of the project

      • what will be the outcome(s)

      • what impact will the project have

      • will the impact of the project sustain

    • Be sure to address the priorities of the funding agency, and

    • Convey into the future the usefulness and importance of what you propose

    Goals and objectives

    Goals and Objectives

    What is going to be done

    Is it appropriate to overuse the word appropriate

    Is it appropriate to overuse the word appropriate?

    • The proposal directions almost always require measurable goals, objectives and outcomes

    • Using the word appropriate (eg the project will utilize appropriate strategies to minimize bullying behavior) tips readers to applicant not knowing what to do

    Project goals and objectives

    Project Goals and Objectives

    • Condition/Context

    • Behavior/Actions

    • Criteria (How good is good enough?)

    • Goals and objectives are based on the statement of need.

    • What will be done, under what conditions and how will success be determined

    • The goal is where we want to be.

    • The objectives are the steps needed to get there

    Crisp and concise

    Crisp and Concise

    • one or two goals

    • A number of objectives related to accomplishing the goals

    • The strategies, actions or steps to achieve each objective.

    • Conditions/context

    • Behavior/actions

    • Criteria



    • Objectives describe who is going to do what, when they will do it, and how it will be measured

      (conditions and criteria)

    • Discuss desired end results of the project (the expected behavior)

    • But not how those results will be accomplished (that comes in the project design or methods section

    • Arrange them in priority order.

    Plan of action project design or methods

    Plan of Action, Project Design, or Methods

    • This is often the section of the proposal which is worth the most points in the scoring rubric.

    • This is often the most challenging to prepare

    • Many proposals are rejected due to poor or missing methods/project design section

    • This is the “essence” section where a detailed description of what will be done, by whom, according to a timeline is provided

    • Each action needs to be clearly described and link to goals/objectives and with each other

    Project proposal methods

    Serve as a GPS to enable the reader to find their way through the project

    Describe the strategies and activities as they relate to the objectives

    Provide a timeline with task completion dates

    Does it provide an organizational chart

    Describe how the activities and strategies will be conducted

    Specify who does what, when, where, how and for how long?

    Project Proposal Methods

    Does your plan of action:

    Project proposal methods1

    If program plan or methods are new or unique explain why they are better than that previously used

    Specify program/project design and why it was selected

    Define all important terms and acronyms

    Provide descriptions of data sources including participants, how they will be selected, the number of participants

    Describe all procedures

    Basically describe a step-by-step work plan: who does what, when, where and how

    Project Proposal Methods

    Quality of key personnel who are these people and why are would we give them our money

    Quality of Key Personnel: Who Are these People? And, why are would we give them our money?

    • Purpose of this section is to convince the funding source that you are capable of doing what you say you can do

    • Emphasize the knowledge, skill and competencies the key personnel

    • Describe your experience in managing other projects

    • Consultants

    • In instances where you cannot identify a specific person, provide the key elements of the job description or the qualifications required

    • Describe the roles and responsibilities of all staff, and level of effort of each by time or percentages

    In the key personnel section be s ure to include

    In the Key Personnel Section be Sure to Include:

    • Publications or projects/programs in which you and the project staff have been involved

    • The training, credentials, licensing, certifications of the key personnel

    • Other dissemination: Conference presentations, web sites, etc.

    Agency or institution qualifications

    Agency or Institution Qualifications

    • Why should the award be made to your institution?

    • The Grants Office will help you with the information in this section.

    • Highlight institution’s capabilities, relation of the project to mission.

    • Facilities, support, library, computer, etc.

    Program project evaluation

    Program/Project Evaluation

    Did we do what we set out to do?

    Did we do it well enough?

    Are we sure of our results?

    Did we learn anything we didn’t expect?

    Program project evaluation1

    Program/Project Evaluation

    • Formative evaluation of objectives

      • how the project will be evaluated as it progresses

    • Summative evaluation of objectives

      • how the project will be evaluated when it is finished

    Program project evaluation d esign

    Program/Project EvaluationDesign

    • Describe the Program/Project Evaluation Framework

    • Context, Input, Process, Product (CIPP)

    Evaluation consultation

    Evaluation Consultation

    • Employ someone with program evaluation expertise

    • Identify evaluation expert in key personnel and as a member of your team

    • Include their resume which will show track record of success in program evaluation

    • The evaluation consultant will assist in writing this section



    What happens when the

    money runs out?



    • Funding agencies want to have a lasting impact and they want to know how that is going to occur

    • Include how you propose to continue the project beyond the funding that you are requesting:

    • May include a “good faith” statement (pledge) from your district or agency

    • Demonstrate sustainability with your resource plan (budget and business plan) e.g. creating revenue stream for when the funding goes away

    • How will this project become part of an established program?

    • Will it generate marketable services or products or fees to sustain?

    • Will it become part of your district or agency budget?

    Report and use the information

    Report and Use the Information

    Don’t let it sit on a shelf

    Reporting and using

    Reporting and Using

    • Process by which your project is reported to other professionals and the public

    • Important to you and the funding agency

    • Sometimes presented as summary or conclusion of the project plan

    • How will you make the results or outcomes of your work available to others?

    • Will there be workshops, publications, or conferences?

    • If you are producing materials how will they be advertised, marketed, and distributed?

    • Websites

    • Social networking: facebook, twitter, etc

    Plan should include

    Plan Should Include:

    • Which results will be reported?

    • To what audience(s)?

    • How the results or products will be disseminated, e.g., computer networks, cds, conferences, professional journals, or publication of books, chapters, or monographs?

    Resource plan and budget

    Resource Plan and Budget

    Developing the resource plan budget

    Developing The Resource Plan (Budget)

    • The Finance Office must be involved in this portion of proposal development.

    • The budget communicates the methods/project design section in financial terms so it must align with that section

    • Be Realistic: don’t overstate or understate

    • Two sections to a budget

      • the financial format which displays the budget into specific accounts and line items

      • a budget narrative that describes how these figures were calculated and why the funding is needed

    Budget categories and line items



    Materials & Supplies


    Purchase Services


    Budget Categories and line items



    • Resumes

    • Letters of Commitment from Partners

    • Letters of Support from others

    • Think like a reader/reviewer: Other additional information which would help to understand the proposal

    • Think green and don’t overdo adding pages

    Letters we have letters

    Letters of Commitment

    Evidence of interest in project from participants

    if project is funded they are ready with their contribution

    what they will contribute

    they will participate at the time that you need them

    Letters of Support

    We think it’s a good idea

    referred to in text, put in appendix

    how does project fit with mission/goals of college

    Presents type of support

    Letters, we have letters…

    Review criteria

    Review Criteria

    Review and edit

    Review and Edit

    • Adhere to the funding agency’s review criteria

    • Internal and External Reviewers

    • Peers

    • Expert Panel

    • Funding Agency Staff

    • Funding Agency Board of Directors

    • Typically points are assigned and awarded to the application sections, one missed or inadequate section could result in application being rejected

    Think like a reader reviewer

    Think like a Reader/reviewer

    • Is the application easy to scan and “high” points easy to see

    • Break up text with graphs, paragraphs bulleted lists

    • Illustrations, tables and graphs are effective in needs section

    • Tables and images also work well in the methodology section

    • Be sure that beginning sentence grab the attention of the reader

    Review and review again prior to submission

    Set your timeline so that there is sufficient time for you to:

    Be able to put the application aside for a day or two and then you do a final once-over

    Have someone else read it and be able to tell you about your project / proposal

    Fitness: pare down to ensure that it is as concise and clear as possible

    Review and review again prior to submission

    Writing approach and style

    Preparing and writing the application/proposal is a technical skill: work with someone who has had some success

    Use action verbs to illustrate you mean business

    Avoid first person

    Writing Approach and Style

    What works

    What Works

    • Readable: Clear, concise and to the point

    • Straightforward presentation (don’t overdo the prose)

    • Proposal elements well organized, easy to find

    • Accurate table of contents

    • Adhere to funding agency directions

    What doesn t

    Missed timelines

    Directions not followed

    Not addressing identified funding agency priorities

    Believe it or not: incomplete proposal or application

    Weak evidence, poor data

    What doesn’t

    What doesn t1

    Inability of applicant to deliver

    Resource plan is inadequate: budget is understated in relation to project tasks

    Proposal misses the funding agency’s specified priorities

    What doesn’t

    Collaboration is essential

    Collaboration is Essential

    • The Team

      • You as the Leader

      • Your colleagues, students and their families

      • The community at large

      • Your finance office

    In what sport can you fail 70 of the time and still be very successful

    In what sport can you fail 70% of the time and still be very successful?

    • Baseball

    • Grant writing

    Q uestions comments discussion

    Questions, comments, discussion

    Alternate revenue overview

    • Since January 1, 2010 there have been five school related incidents that have affected students. The incidents range from a school bus accident injuring 17 students in the parking lot of a Marlboro School, a oil burner malfunction

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