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Work, Energy, and Power. Work = W. The product of the force F applied to an object over a distance d in which the object travels as a result of the force. (Force and distance must be parallel to each other). Joule (J) is the base unit of work. Work Example.

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Work w
Work = W

The product of the force F applied to an object over a distance d in which the object travels as a result of the force

(Force and distance must be parallel to each other)

Joule (J) is the base unit of work


Work example
Work Example

A student lifts a 50 pound (lb) ball 4 feet (ft) in 5 seconds (s).

How many joules of work did the student complete?

Convert English units to SI units

Solve for Work


Energy
Energy

Ability to do work

Light, heat, mechanical, chemical, and electrical forms of energy can all be used to exert a force for a distance.

Fuel cell

Roller coaster

NASA solar sail


Forms of energy
Forms of Energy

Potential Energy (Stored energy, usually referring to gravitational energy)

The capacity to do work by virtue of position or configuration


Forms of energy1
Forms of Energy

Kinetic Energy (Energy of motion)

Energy which a body possesses because of its motion, which occurs anywhere from an atomic level to that of a whole organism


Energy transformation
Energy Transformation

ChemicalKinetic

Radiant Chemical

Electrical  Thermal


Renewable energy sources
Renewable Energy Sources

Biomass

Hydropower

Geothermal

Solar

Wind


Nonrenewable energy sources
Nonrenewable Energy Sources

Natural Gas

Coal

Uranium

Petroleum


Conservation of energy
Conservation of Energy

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can change from one form to another.

Energy Conversion

Changing one form of energy to another

Energy Efficiency: The ratio of the useful energy delivered by a dynamic system to the energy supplied to it

Entropy: The increasing disorder when energy is transformed to heat during conversion


Energy conversion
Energy Conversion

Examples

Fossil fuelsChemical→ Heat→ Mechanical→ Electrical

Solar cellsSunlight→Electrical

Wind turbinesKinetic→Mechanical→Electrical

HydroelectricGravitational potential→Mechanical→Electrical

Nuclear Nuclear →Heat→ Mechanical→Electrical

Vehicle System Conversion

Chemical

Heat

Mechanical

Which output is desired, mechanical or heat?


What are current energy concerns
What Are Current Energy Concerns?

Consumption

Pollution

Depletion

Dependency

Cost

http://www.eia.doe.gov

What roles do engineers have in energy?


Power
Power

Rate at which work is performed or energy is expended

Watt is the base unit of Power

One watt is equal to 1 joule of work per second


Types of power
Types of Power

Electrical Power

Uses electrical energy to do work

MechanicalPower

Uses mechanical energy to do work (linear, rotary)

FluidPower

Uses energy transferred by liquids (hydraulic) and gases (pneumatic)


Power example
Power Example

A student lifts a 50.0 pound (lbf) ball 4.00 feet (ft) in 5.00 seconds (s).

How many watts of power are used to lift the ball?

Work = 271.45 J


Resources
Resources

McGraw-Hill dictionary of engineering. (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Microsoft, Inc. (2008). Clip art. Retrieved January 10, 2008, from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/clipart/default.aspx

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (1997). Daedalus. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/Gallery /Photo/Daedalus/

U.S. Department of Energy. (2008). Scientific forms of energy. Retrieved March 23, 2008, from http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/science/formsofenergy.html


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