Making norms work for the environment: the examples of public-private partnerships and forest certif...
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Making norms work for the environment: the examples of public-private partnerships and forest certification. Dr Philipp Pattberg. Slide on ESSP. Findings from the Earth System Science Partnership:. “The earth operates well outside the normal state exhibited over the past 500,000 years.”.

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Dr philipp pattberg

Making norms work for the environment: the examples of public-private partnerships and forest certification

Dr Philipp Pattberg


Slide on essp

Slide on ESSP


Findings from the earth system science partnership

Findings from the Earth System Science Partnership:

“The earth operates well outside the normal state exhibited over the past 500,000 years.”

“Human activities could … trigger severe consequences for Earth’s environment …”

“…potentially switching the Earth System to alternative modes of operation that may prove irreversible and inhospitable to humans.”


Politics in the anthropocene

Politics in the “Anthropocene”

The Earth System Science Partnership maintains that “urgently needed” are …

an ethical framework for global stewardship and

strategies forEarth System management.


My argument

My argument

  • The creation, implementation and monitoring of global norms is no longer confined to states and the inter-national system;

  • Numerous initiatives and institutions exist today that go beyond the state (in issue areas ranging from climate change to biodiversity conservation);

  • The relevance and effectiveness of this phenomenon is not well understood;

  • A broader perspective is necessary to understand how these initiatives link to public governance.


Global environmental governance beyond the state

Global (Environmental) Governance beyond the state

“The arena in which ‘the authoritative allocation of values in societies’ now takes place in­creasingly reaches beyond the confines of national boundaries, and a small, but growing fraction of norms and rules governing relations among social actors of all types (states, international agencies, firms, and of civil society) are based in and pursued through transnational channels and processes.” (Ruggie 2004)


Outline

Outline

  • Typology

  • What is the scope of the phenomenon?

  • Empirical examples

    • Public-private partnerships (WSSD)

    • Forest certification (FSC)

  • Recommendations


Typology of governance beyond the state

Typology of Governance (beyond the State)


Typology of governance beyond the state1

Typology of Governance (beyond the State)


Scope of the phenomenon

Scope of the phenomenon

  • UN Global Compact: 5300 participating companies

  • Global Reporting Initiative: 2500 companies use reporting framework

  • ISO 14000 EMS: 25.000 companies/130.000 sites certified in 2007

  • Uncounted company and industry-based codes of conduct (e.g. Responsible Care, RC)

  • More than 50 private standard-setting initiatives (FSC, MSC, etc.)

  • 350 public-private partnerships registered with the CSD

  • More than 500 public-private partnerships for SD outside of the WSSD system

  • All in addition to more than 700 international environmental treaties


Example 1 public private partnerships for sd

Example 1: Public-Private Partnerships for SD

  • 2002 Johannesburg Summit (WSSD): “type-2 outcomes”

  • Public-private partnerships for sustainable development as the main implementation tool of the MDGs and Agenda 21

  • To date more than 350 WSSD partnerships are registered with the CSD


Public private partnerships for sd

Public-Private Partnerships for SD

  • WSSD partnerships are

  • voluntary agreements (as opposed to regulatory mechanisms)‏

  • involve multi-stakeholder initiatives (as opposed to initiatives by state actors)

  • aim at implementation of intergovernmental commitments (as opposed to participation in decision-making)

  • work on issues of sustainable development (as opposed to other issues that might be immediately relevant)

  • act to implement inter-governmentally agreed sustainable development goals (as opposed to sustainable development goals that governments have not/ not yet agreed on, or suggesting new goals).


Output

Output


Outputs matching functions

Outputs matching Functions?


Output across issue areas

Output across issue areas

No of partnerships

60

50

40

30

20

10

Average

Water

Energy

Oceans, Seas, Coasts, Lakes and River Basins

Biodiversity

Health

Agriculture

Climate Change

Forestry

Mining

20 40 60 80 100

Output %


Assessment and recommendations

Assessment and Recommendations

  • WSSD partnerships only partially fulfill their governance function, although a number of individual partnerships are highly effective (e.g. REEEP);

  • Governments should

    • Strengthen requirements for registration

    • Increase oversight and monitoring capacities of CSD

    • Create a clearinghouse for public-private partnerships for SD


The forest stewardship council

The Forest Stewardship Council

  • The FSC is a private non-profit organization with a heterogeneous membership consisting of environmental and social non-governmental organizations, corporations in the forestry sector, scientific institutions, and individuals from more than 60 countries.

  • The FSC administers a self-elaborated third-party certification system on wood and timber products that serves to verify whether products originate from sustainable forestry.


The forest stewardship council effects

The Forest Stewardship Council: Effects

  • FSC=127 Mio ha (=5% of worldwide forest cover)

  • Geographic area: Europe 46.6 %, North America 36.5 %; Latin America, Africa, Asia and Oceania 16%

  • FSC certificates per forest type: 57% natural forests, 35% semi-natural and mixed plantations, 7% plantations

  • FSC certification by area: 49% boreal, 37% temperate, 14% tropical


The forest stewardship council effects cont

The Forest Stewardship Council: Effects cont’

  • Market access, price premium, North/South

  • Influence on public policy: national forest law, national procurement policy

  • Influence on broader discourses: what is sustainable forest management?

  • Influence on business actors: emergence of alternative certification schemes (PEFC)


Assessment and recommendations1

Assessment and Recommendations

  • Compared to international efforts, FSC is successful

  • Limitations are rooted in the governance mechanisms applied (certification/market-based governance)

  • Potential conflict with WTO

  • Governments should give more support to certification initiatives trough

    • Public procurement policies

    • EU harmonization

    • Tax incentives on certified products (reduced VAT)


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Global Environmental Governance beyond the State is a reality in world politics

  • It can be a viable addition to inter-national environmental governance, provided more attention is directed towards synergetic relations with public governance

  • What is need is a pro-active strategy of governments to engage with norms and rules beyond the state.


Dr philipp pattberg

Participation of marginalized groups


The forest stewardship council decision making

The Forest Stewardship Council: Decision-making

  • The General Assembly of FSC Members is the highest decision-making body in FSC and is made up of the three membership chambers: Environmental, Social and Economic, which are further split into sub-chambers North and South. The purpose of the chamber structure is to maintain the balance of voting power between different interests without having to limit the number of members.

  • The Board of Directors is accountable to the FSC members. It is made up of nine individuals who are elected from each of the chambers for a three-year term.

  • The Executive Director, with the support of a multicultural professional team at FSC IC, runs the FSC on a day-to-day basis.


Background

Background


The forest stewardship council principles

The Forest Stewardship Council: Principles

PRINCIPLE #1: COMPLIANCE WITH LAWS AND FSC PRINCIPLES

PRINCIPLE #2: TENURE AND USE RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

PRINCIPLE #3: INDIGENOUS PEOPLES’ RIGHTS

PRINCIPLE #4: COMMUNITY RELATIONS AND WORKER’S RIGHTS

PRINCIPLE # 5: BENEFITS FROM THE FOREST

PRINCIPLE #6: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

PRINCIPLE #7: MANAGEMENT PLAN

PRINCIPLE #8: MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT

PRINCIPLE # 9: MAINTENANCE OF HIGH CONSERVATION VALUE FORESTS

PRINCIPLE # 10: PLANTATIONS


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