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The American Revolution 1775-1783. The Shot Heard Round the World. The Combatants. British Advantages Army of Regulars Top Navy 30,000 Hessians 50,000 American loyalists Large industrial base Money and supplies. American Advantages 3,000 miles of ocean Home Turf (defensive war)

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The American Revolution 1775-1783

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The American Revolution 1775-1783


The Shot Heard Round the World


The Combatants


British Advantages

Army of Regulars

Top Navy

30,000 Hessians

50,000 American loyalists

Large industrial base

Money and supplies


  • American Advantages

    • 3,000 miles of ocean

    • Home Turf (defensive war)

    • Fighting for independence

    • Leadership

    • Possible French assistance

    • Guerilla tactics


American Advantages

  • Most important element of American victory was their determination to be free.


Lexington and Concord

“The shot heard round the world”

Unclear start to a revolution

Approves “Olive Branch Petition”

Battles


Breed’s Hill/ Bunker Hill

British driven from Mass

England ‘wins’ but loses ½ its men

British realize the scope of the revolution

Battles


Trenton

NJ:Washington attacks during winter with limited success. Defeats Hessians

Battles


Battle of Saratoga:

Turning point

French have the confidence to support the Patriots with supplies


Washington Crossing the Delaware


Valley Forge

Low point for Continental Army. Suffered the winter without food or supplies. 3,000 soldiers die from starvation and disease.


Yorktown

Marks last major battle

Cornwallis cornered between land and sea

French-American army surround British

Battles


“The World Turn’d Upside Down”


First Continental Congress

  • Convened in Phil. in ‘74

    • Statement of grievances to King

    • Preparations for fighting

    • Boycott

    • Agreed to meet again in ‘75


Common Sense

Thomas Paine

  • Published Jan.’76

  • Sold 100,000 copies in first four months

  • Called for complete split from Britain and its constitution


Declaration of Independence

  • Written by Jefferson

  • Formal break with the crown


When in the Course of Human Events…


Reactions to July 4…


Conducting the War: States v. Central government

  • Despite individual states vying for power, Congress given power to coordinate the war but

    • State militias

    • States volunteering money


New York City in Flames


War and Economy

Trade with Britain cut

No protection at sea

  • Diversified by the 1780s

    • New trading partners

    • Formation of navy

    • Some industry forms


Imports/Exports


Treaty of Paris of 1783

  • U.S. bordered by Mississippi, Canada, Atlantic, and Florida

  • Diplomatic recognized by British

  • British promised to evacuate Ohio Valley

  • U.S. promised to pay debts


War and Society

  • Loyalists harassed

    • Left behind property and estates

    • Many moved to Canada or Britain

  • Native-Americans generally opposed the Revolution

  • Mixed bag for African-Americans


Toleration and Slavery

  • Where it was not used, usually abolished

  • SC and GA refused to halt slave trade

  • Separation of Church and State (Statute of Religious Freedom by Thomas Jefferson of VA)


Washington Resigns from the Army


State Constitutions

  • Guiding principle: Do the opposite of Britain

  • Republicanism

  • CN & RI simply changed their colonial charters

  • Limited executive branch

  • Most had bicameral legislatures

  • Property required for voting


Articles of Confederation (’81-’89)

  • Federal Gov’t consisted of a unicameral Congress (9 out of 13 votes to pass a law)

  • 13 out of 13 states needed to amend

  • Representatives frequently absent

  • Could not tax or raise armies

  • Northwest Ordinance a success

  • Shays’ Rebellion shows weaknesses


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