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The American Revolution 1775-1783 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The American Revolution 1775-1783. The Shot Heard Round the World. The Combatants. British Advantages Army of Regulars Top Navy 30,000 Hessians 50,000 American loyalists Large industrial base Money and supplies. American Advantages 3,000 miles of ocean Home Turf (defensive war)

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British Advantages

Army of Regulars

Top Navy

30,000 Hessians

50,000 American loyalists

Large industrial base

Money and supplies

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  • American Advantages

    • 3,000 miles of ocean

    • Home Turf (defensive war)

    • Fighting for independence

    • Leadership

    • Possible French assistance

    • Guerilla tactics

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American Advantages

  • Most important element of American victory was their determination to be free.

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Lexington and Concord

“The shot heard round the world”

Unclear start to a revolution

Approves “Olive Branch Petition”


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Breed’s Hill/ Bunker Hill

British driven from Mass

England ‘wins’ but loses ½ its men

British realize the scope of the revolution


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NJ:Washington attacks during winter with limited success. Defeats Hessians


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Battle of Saratoga:

Turning point

French have the confidence to support the Patriots with supplies

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Valley Forge

Low point for Continental Army. Suffered the winter without food or supplies. 3,000 soldiers die from starvation and disease.

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Marks last major battle

Cornwallis cornered between land and sea

French-American army surround British


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First Continental Congress

  • Convened in Phil. in ‘74

    • Statement of grievances to King

    • Preparations for fighting

    • Boycott

    • Agreed to meet again in ‘75

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Common Sense

Thomas Paine

  • Published Jan.’76

  • Sold 100,000 copies in first four months

  • Called for complete split from Britain and its constitution

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Declaration of Independence

  • Written by Jefferson

  • Formal break with the crown

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Conducting the War: States v. Central government

  • Despite individual states vying for power, Congress given power to coordinate the war but

    • State militias

    • States volunteering money

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War and Economy

Trade with Britain cut

No protection at sea

  • Diversified by the 1780s

    • New trading partners

    • Formation of navy

    • Some industry forms

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Treaty of Paris of 1783

  • U.S. bordered by Mississippi, Canada, Atlantic, and Florida

  • Diplomatic recognized by British

  • British promised to evacuate Ohio Valley

  • U.S. promised to pay debts

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War and Society

  • Loyalists harassed

    • Left behind property and estates

    • Many moved to Canada or Britain

  • Native-Americans generally opposed the Revolution

  • Mixed bag for African-Americans

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Toleration and Slavery

  • Where it was not used, usually abolished

  • SC and GA refused to halt slave trade

  • Separation of Church and State (Statute of Religious Freedom by Thomas Jefferson of VA)

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State Constitutions

  • Guiding principle: Do the opposite of Britain

  • Republicanism

  • CN & RI simply changed their colonial charters

  • Limited executive branch

  • Most had bicameral legislatures

  • Property required for voting

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Articles of Confederation (’81-’89)

  • Federal Gov’t consisted of a unicameral Congress (9 out of 13 votes to pass a law)

  • 13 out of 13 states needed to amend

  • Representatives frequently absent

  • Could not tax or raise armies

  • Northwest Ordinance a success

  • Shays’ Rebellion shows weaknesses