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Daily Food for Thought. Trace and name the parts of the monogastric digestive system. Monogastric Digestive System. Mouth Esophagus Stomach Duodenum Jejunum Ileum Cecum Colon Rectum Anus. Ruminant Digestive Systems. Learning Target:

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Daily Food for Thought

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Daily food for thought

Daily Food for Thought

Trace and name the parts of the monogastric digestive system.


Monogastric digestive system

Monogastric Digestive System

Mouth

Esophagus

Stomach

Duodenum

Jejunum

Ileum

Cecum

Colon

Rectum

Anus


Ruminant digestive systems

Ruminant Digestive Systems

Learning Target:

I can trace identify the parts of the ruminant digestive system and describe the functions of each.


The ruminant digestive system

The Ruminant Digestive System


Ruminant digestive systems1

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Functions of the digestive system of animals include:

    • ingestion (eating)

    • chewing (mastication)

    • swallowing (deglutition)

    • absorption of nutrients

    • elimination of solid wastes (defecation)


Ruminant digestive systems2

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • The digestive system changes food nutrients into compounds that are easily absorbed into the bloodstream.


Ruminants

Ruminants

  • 2.8 billion domesticated ruminants

    • Cattle, sheep, deer, elk, bison

  • Pregastric fermentation

    • Ability to chew cud at frequent intervals distinguishes true ruminant from other foregut fermenters

      • Kangaroo, colobine monkey are not true ruminants

  • Four compartment stomach

    • Reticulum

    • Rumen

    • Omasum

    • Abomasum


Daily food for thought

Ruminants vary in size and habitat


Ruminant digestive systems3

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Different species of animals have digestive systems adapted to the most efficient use of the food they consume.

  • The anatomy and physiology of the digestive systems of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores all differ.


Ruminant digestive systems4

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Ruminants are those animals that contain a multi-chambered digestive system (polygastric) that allows the animal to gain the majority of their nutritional needs from forages and other roughages.

  • Forage refers to grasses, roughages refers to other high-fiber food sources.


Classification of ruminants by feeding preference

Classification of Ruminants by Feeding Preference

  • Classes of ruminants

    • Concentrate selectors

    • Intermediate feeders

    • Roughage grazers


Concentrate selecting species

Concentrate Selecting Species

  • Properties

    • Evolved early

    • Small rumens

    • Poorly developed omasums

    • Large livers

    • Limited ability to digest fiber

  • Classes

    • Fruit and forage selectors

      • Very selective feeders

      • Duikers, sunis

    • Tree and shrub browsers

      • Eat highly lignified plant tissues to extract cell solubles

      • Deer, giraffes, kudus


Intermediate feeding species

Intermediate Feeding Species

  • Properties

    • Seasonally adaptive

  • Feeding preference

    • Prefer browsing

      • Moose, goats, elands

    • Prefer grazing

      • Sheep, impalas


Roughage grazing species

Roughage Grazing Species

  • Properties

    • Most recently evolved

    • Larger rumens and longer retention times

    • Less selective

    • Digests fermentable cell wall carbohydrates

  • Classes

    • Fresh grass grazers

      • Buffalo, cattle, gnus

    • Roughage grazers

      • Hartebeests, topis

    • Dry region grazers

      • Camels, antelope, oryxes


Ruminant digestive systems5

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • The length and complexity of the digestive system depends on the species.

  • In herbivores, it is very long and complex.


Ruminant digestive systems6

Pancreas

Pharynx

Rectum

Ruminant Digestive Systems

Kidney

Liver

Esophagus

Cecum

Teeth

Picture of digestive system of cow

Anus

Tongue

Colon

Reticulum

Salivary Gland

Rumen

Small Intestine

Omasum

Abomasum


Ruminant digestive systems7

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • The digestive system of ruminant animals includes the :

    • Mouth - grasps the food

    • Teeth - grind the food

      • Ruminants have only one set of teeth in the front of the mouth (incisors), and two sets in the back (molars).


Ruminant digestive systems8

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Tongue - covered with finger-like projections (papillae) that contain taste buds.

  • Salivary glands - secrete saliva, that moistens food and is mixed with the food material to aid in swallowing.


Ruminant digestive systems9

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Pharynx - funnels food into the esophagus, preventing food material from entering the lungs.

  • Esophagus - food tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach.


Ruminant stomach

Ruminant Stomach

Anatomy:

  • Reticulum

  • Rumen

  • Omasum

  • Abomasum


Ruminant digestive systems10

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • At this point, ruminant animals have a multi-chambered “stomach”

    • Reticulum - honeycomb-like interior surface, this part helps to remove foreign matter from the food material.


Reticulo rumen

Reticulo-rumen

Although structurally they appear as a single continuous compartment, functionally they are distinctly different


Daily food for thought

Reticulum - full


Daily food for thought

Reticulum - cleaned


Reticulum

Reticulum

  • Honeycomb lining

    • No secretions

  • Formation of food bolus

  • Regurgitation initiated here

  • Collects hardware (nails, wire)


Ruminant digestive systems11

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Ruminant animals grasp mouthfuls of food and swallow it before it is chewed.

    • They wrap their tongue around a mouthful of grass, clamp down their teeth, and pull to break the grass at its weakest point, and swallow.


Ruminant digestive systems12

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Ruminants will“chew their cud” (regurgitate) their food material and then grind it with their molars at a time when the animal is resting.

  • This is done until the food particles are small enough to pass through the reticulum into the rumen.


Ruminant digestive systems13

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Since ruminant animals do not “chew” their food when it is taken in, at times foreign material like rocks, nails, small pieces of wire, can be swallowed.


Ruminant digestive systems14

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • While the animal is “chewing its cud” foreign particles that are heavy are allowed to “sink” in the reticulum, preventing many foreign particles from entering the rest of the digestive system.

  • Once foreign material enters the reticulum, it stays there for the life of the animal.


Ruminant digestive systems15

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • If enough of this foreign material remains in the reticulum, it may cause damage and infection of the reticulum (hardware disease).


Daily food for thought

Telephone Cord


Daily food for thought

Wire


Daily food for thought

Sponge taken from digestive system of an animal


Ruminant digestive systems16

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Rumen - the organ that allows for bacterial and chemical breakdown of fiber.

    • The rumen has a very thick, muscular wall.

    • It fills most of the left-side of the abdomen


Ruminant digestive systems17

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • The walls of the rumen contain papillae (that can be up to 1 cm. in length), where the bacteria that are used to breakdown fiber live.

  • In some ruminants (dairy cattle) the rumen can have a capacity of 55-65 gallons!


Rumen

Rumen

  • Digestion and fermentation vat

    • 40-50 gallons

    • No secretions

  • Contains anaerobic microbes (25-50 billion bacteria/mL fluid)

    • Also protozoa, fungi

    • Produce VFA, protein

  • Papillae lining

    • Increase surface area

  • Absorption of VFA

    • Passive diffusion


Daily food for thought

Papillae in Rumen


Daily food for thought

Papillae in Rumen


Ruminant digestive systems18

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Omasum - section that is round and muscular.

    • “Grinds” the food material and prepares the food material for chemical breakdown.


Omasum

Omasum

  • Laminae/manyply lining

    • Muscular folds

    • No secretions

  • Reduces particle size

  • Absorption of water

    • ~60% removed

  • Absorption of VFAs

    • ~2/3 of VFAs entering or 10% of total produced

    • Prevents buffering of the abomasum


Daily food for thought

Omasum - full


Ruminant digestive systems19

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Abomasum - very similar to the stomach of non-ruminants.

    • this is where the majority of chemical breakdown of food material occurs.

    • mixes in digestive enzymes (pepsin, rennin, bile, etc.).


Daily food for thought

Abomasum – inside view


Ruminant digestive systems20

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Small Intestine - where most of the food material is absorbed into the bloodstream

    • Contains three sections:

      • duodenum

      • jejunum

      • ileum


Ruminant digestive systems21

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • The food material is continually squeezed as it is moved through the small intestine, becoming more solid.

  • The majority of the food material absorption occurs in the duodenum and the jejunum.


Ruminant digestive systems22

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Large Intestine - begins to prepare unused food material for removal from the body

    • a portion of the large intestine in some animals contain pouches that may contain enzymes for further species-specific digestion (horses and rabbits (cecum)).


Large intestine

Large Intestine

  • Fermentative digestion

    • Bacteria similar to rumen, but no protozoa

    • Digestion in colon may account for as much as:

      • 27% of cellulose digestion

      • 40% of hemicellulose digestion

      • 10% of starch digestion

    • Only important in conditions that increase the amount of fermentative carbohydrate entering the large intestine

      • Increased rate of passage of forages

      • High grain diets

    • May account for as much as 17% of total VFA absorption

    • VFAs are efficiently absorbed, but primarily used as energy source for large intestinal mucosa cells


Large intestine1

Large Intestine

  • Absorption of ammonia-N

    • May account for as much as 30 to 40% of the net transport of N into body fluid

    • Absorbed N may be used for:

      • Synthesis of nonessential amino acids

      • Recycling of N to the rumen

        • Important on low protein diets

    • Regulated by:

      • Increased by increasing N concentration of diet

      • Decreased by increasing the amount of carbohydrate fermented in the large intestine

  • Mineral absorption

  • Water absorption

    • 90% of water entering the LI is absorbed


Ruminant digestive systems23

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Colon - collects the unused food material that is to be removed from the body

  • Rectum - “poop chute”

  • Anus - opening through which the waste is removed.

    • Controlled by sphincter muscles, that also help protect the opening.


Ruminant digestive systems24

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • In conclusion, the rumen allows for bacteria to breakdown fiber, enabling ruminants to gain the proteins and energy from plant sources.

  • Non-ruminant animals cannot obtain the nutritional value from most plant sources unless the food has been modified (ground, mashed, etc.)

index


Ruminant digestive systems25

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • Ruminants are those animals that contain a multi-chambered digestive system (_________) that allows the animal to gain the majority of their nutritional needs from _______ and other _____________.


Ruminant digestive systems26

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • At this point, ruminant animals have a multi-chambered “__________”

    • _________ - honeycomb-like interior surface, this part helps to remove foreign matter from the food material.


Ruminant digestive systems27

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • ______ - the organ that allows for bacterial and chemical breakdown of fiber.

    • The _____ has a very thick, muscular wall.

    • It fills most of the _______ of the abdomen


Ruminant digestive systems28

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • _______ - section that is round and muscular.

    • “______” the food material and prepares the food material for chemical breakdown.


Ruminant digestive systems29

Ruminant Digestive Systems

  • __________ - very similar to the stomach of non-ruminants.

    • this is where the majority of chemical breakdown of food material occurs.

    • mixes in digestive __________ (pepsin, rennin, bile, etc.).


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