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Chapter 8. Understanding and Installing Hard Drives. You Will Learn…. About hard drive technologies How a computer communicates with hard drive firmware How a hard drive is logically organized to hold data How to install a hard drive How to solve hard drive installation problems.

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Chapter 8

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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

Understanding and Installing Hard Drives


You will learn

You Will Learn…

  • About hard drive technologies

  • How a computer communicates with hard drive firmware

  • How a hard drive is logically organized to hold data

  • How to install a hard drive

  • How to solve hard drive installation problems

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Hard drive technologies

Hard Drive Technologies

  • Used by hard drive to interface with the system

  • Used within hard drive to read and write data to the drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Hard drive subsystem

Hard Drive Subsystem

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Types of hard drive interfaces

Types of Hard Drive Interfaces

  • EIDE (Enhanced IDE) interface standards used by most hard drives

  • Other interface standards

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Eide interface standards

EIDE Interface Standards

  • Specify data transfer speed more than any other factor

  • Considerations when selecting a standard

    • Use fastest standard appropriate for range of the system and size of the drive

    • Must be supported by the OS, system BIOS on motherboard, and firmware on the drive

  • Ultra ATA/100: most popular

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Ansi interface standards

ANSI Interface Standards

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Eide interface standards continued

EIDE Interface Standards (continued)

  • Modes of transferring data between hard drive and memory

    • DMA transfer mode

    • PIO transfer mode

  • IDE cabling methods

    • Parallel ATA (PATA) technology

    • Serial ATA (SATA) technology

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Ide cabling methods

IDE Cabling Methods

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Ide cabling methods continued

IDE Cabling Methods (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Ide cabling methods continued1

IDE Cabling Methods (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Eide interface standards continued1

EIDE Interface Standards (continued)

  • Independent device timing

  • Drives larger than 137GB

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Configuring eide drives

Configuring EIDE Drives

  • EIDE standards support two IDE connections, a primary and a secondary

  • Each connection can support up to two IDE devices for a total of four devices on a system

    • Primary IDE channel, master device

    • Primary IDE channel, slave device

    • Secondary IDE channel, master device

    • Secondary IDE channel, slave device

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Configuring eide drives continued

Configuring EIDE Drives (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Other interface standards

Other Interface Standards

  • SCSI (small computer system interface)

  • USB

  • IEEE 1394

  • Fibre Channel

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


How hard drives work

How Hard Drives Work

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


How hard drives work continued

How Hard Drives Work (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Tracks and sectors on the drive

Tracks and Sectors on the Drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Tracks and sectors on the drive continued

Tracks and Sectors on the Drive (continued)

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Low level formatting

Low-Level Formatting

  • Occurs at the factory

  • Process of writing sector and track markings on the disk

  • Expected to last for the life of the drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Considerations when purchasing a hard drive

Considerations When Purchasing a Hard Drive

  • Capacity

  • Spindle speed

  • Technology standard

  • Cache or buffer size

  • Average seek time

  • Match drive to motherboard

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Communicating with the hard drive controller

Communicating with the Hard Drive Controller

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Calculating drive capacity on older drives

Calculating Drive Capacity on Older Drives

  • For drives less than 8.4 GB

    • Determined by number of heads, tracks, and sectors on the disk, each sector holding 512 bytes of data

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Hard drive size limitations

Hard Drive Size Limitations

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Methods of retaining backward compatibility

Methods of Retaining Backward Compatibility

  • CHS mode or normal mode (for drives less than 528 MB)

  • Large mode or ECHS mode (for drives between 504 MB and 8.4 GB)

  • LBA mode (for drives larger than 504 MB)

  • 33.8 GB limitation and 137 GB limitation

  • Device drivers

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How a hard drive is logically organized to hold data

How a Hard Drive Is Logically Organized to Hold Data

  • Steps for preparing a hard drive to hold files

    • Low-level format (usually done at the factory)

    • Partitioning the hard drive

    • High-level format

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Hard drive partitions and logical drives

Hard Drive Partitions and Logical Drives

  • Active partition

  • Primary partition

  • Extended partition

  • Logical partition

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Partitions and logical drives

Partitions and Logical Drives

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Hard drive partition table

Hard Drive Partition Table

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Choice of file systems

Choice of File Systems

  • FAT16

    • Supported by all Windows systems

  • FAT32 (and VFAT)

    • Supported by Windows 95 Second Edition, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows XP

  • NTFS

    • Supported by Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows XP

  • Each logical drive has its own file system

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How many logical drives

How Many Logical Drives?

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When to partition a drive

When to Partition a Drive

  • First install a new hard drive

  • Existing drive is giving errors

  • Suspect a virus has attacked the drive

  • Want to wipe a hard drive clean and install a new OS

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Installing a hard drive

Installing a Hard Drive

  • Set jumpers or DIP switches; physically install drive; attach power cord and data cable

  • Inform CMOS of new drive

  • If installing an OS on the drive, boot from OS setup CD (and skip next two steps)

  • If drive is not intended to hold an OS, use Fdisk or Disk Management to create partition(s) and divide extended partition into logical drives

  • For second drive, use Format command or Disk Management to high-level format each logical drive

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Prepare for installation

Prepare for Installation

  • Read documentation

  • Plan drive configuration

  • Prepare work area and take precautions

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Jumper settings

Jumper Settings

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Jumper settings continued

Jumper Settings (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Jumper settings continued1

Jumper Settings (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Mounting the drive in the bay

Mounting the Drive in the Bay

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Mounting the drive in the bay continued

Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued)

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Mounting the drive in the bay continued1

Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Mounting the drive in the bay continued2

Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued)

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Mounting the drive in the bay continued3

Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued)

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Mounting the drive in the bay continued4

Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Mounting the drive in the bay continued5

Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Mounting the drive in the bay continued6

Mounting the Drive in the Bay (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


If the bay is too large

If the Bay Is Too Large

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Use cmos to change hard drive settings

Use CMOS to Change Hard Drive Settings

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Setup for large capacity hard drives

Setup for Large-Capacity Hard Drives

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Setup for large capacity hard drives continued

Setup for Large-Capacity Hard Drives (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Setup for large capacity hard drives continued1

Setup for Large-Capacity Hard Drives (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Using fdisk to partition a drive

Using Fdisk to Partition a Drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Using fdisk to partition a drive continued

Using Fdisk to Partition a Drive (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Using fdisk to partition a drive continued1

Using Fdisk to Partition a Drive (continued)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Format each logical drive

Format Each Logical Drive

  • After using Fdisk, you must reboot the PC before you format the drive

  • Commands used to format logical drives C, D, and E:

    • Format C:/S

    • Format D:

    • Format E:

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Using windows to partition and format a new drive

Using Windows to Partition and Format a New Drive

  • Boot from Window setup CD

    • Follow on-screen directions to install Windows on new drive

  • The setup process partitions and formats new drive before it begins Windows installation

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Troubleshooting hard drive installations

Troubleshooting Hard Drive Installations

  • Check CMOS setup to verify that system BIOS recognizes large drives

  • Verify status of Fdisk

  • Verify that Format C:/S was done

  • Check configuration of CMOS setup

  • Confirm setting of DIP switches or jumpers

  • Check connection of power cord and data cable

  • Refer to Web site of manufacturer for suggestions

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Summary

Summary

  • Introduction to hard drive technology

  • How a hard drive is logically organized

  • Physical characteristics of a hard drive

  • How the OS and system BIOS communicate with the hard drive

  • How to install a hard drive

  • Troubleshooting hard drive installation problems

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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