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The New Imperialism . Sasso US I. The war is over, but…. Treaty of Paris puts England truly at peace for the first time in 50 years New sensation- Seems like there is nobody left for England to fight With no battles on the horizon, England can focus on its colonies (especially America)

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The war is over but
The war is over, but…

  • Treaty of Paris puts England truly at peace for the first time in 50 years

  • New sensation- Seems like there is nobody left for England to fight

  • With no battles on the horizon, England can focus on its colonies (especially America)

  • Increased involvement will not be an easy task

  • New lands, huge debt, etc…

  • Additionally, colonies have become very resistant to England’s authority (both Parliament and military)


$$$$$$$

  • Paying for the war effort will NOT be easy

  • Taxation will be the method, but can London do it effectively?

  • In the closing years of the war, England ushers in a new king- King George III

  • Determined to reassert control over colonies (with reasonably good intentions)

  • Some problems: Unstable Parliament, health, new PM (George Grenville)

  • One way or another, England will attempt to EFFECTIVELY regulate American colonies


Proclamation of 1763
Proclamation of 1763

  • England prohibits colonial settlement west of Appalachian Mts.

  • England would like to control the settlement of new lands

  • Slow settlement would limit conflict with Natives

  • Hope to preserve fur trade for British trappers

  • This is widely ignored by the colonists

  • There is really no way for the British to defend the entire length of the App. Mts.


However
However…

  • England is much more of a strong-arm presence in the colonies

  • Many soldiers stayed behind; large presence of the troops in cities, navy patrolling the waters

  • England is trying to forcefully crack down on smuggling

  • Also looking to restrict colonial manufacturing (which would force colonists to buy British-made goods)


Sugar act 1764
Sugar Act 1764

  • Indirect, external tax

  • The Sugar Act actually cuts the tariff from the Molasses Act in ½

  • BUT…it also firmly establishes the use of vice-admiralty courts for accused smugglers

  • Supposed to be a big deterrent for American smugglers

  • These are British military courts- no jury of peers AND the judge earns a % of the fines he imposes

  • This pretty much means American smugglers are guilty and will pay the maximum possible fines


Currency act 1764
Currency Act 1764

  • Colonies frequently have a currency shortage

  • No gold/silver mines- makes hard currency very scarce

  • Currency flow regulated by England

  • Colonies oftentimes had to print their own currency

  • LOTS of issues with that

  • Currency Act prohibits production of colonial currency

  • Prefer all trade to be carried out in hard currency

  • How can the colonies be expected to pay their debts?


Mutiny quartering act 1764 1765 etc
Mutiny/Quartering Act 1764, 1765, etc.

  • Like any nation, England had some difficulty with its army

  • Rules/regulations had to be put in place for crimes

  • Several incarnations of the Mutiny Act

  • The Acts of 1764-1765 were significant as they added the Quartering Acts

  • Colonists have to provide barracks/supplies to British soldiers

  • Indirect form of taxation

  • England justifies it as a form of protection from French/Natives


Stamp act 1765
Stamp Act 1765

  • The mother of them all…

  • Economically, the American colonies struggle during the 1760s

  • Colonies bicker and fight with one another (borders, currency, etc.)

  • Colonies felt some degree of unity during the French & Indian War, though it was somewhat limited

  • The passing of the Stamp Act is the galvanizing force that brings the colonies together


Stamp act 17651
Stamp Act 1765

  • The Stamp Act is a direct, internal tax on goods and services

  • 1st time England enacted taxation of this type on the American colonies

  • Stamp had to being affixed to all mailed items

  • Purpose of the Act was to help offset the cost of stationing British troops near the Appalachians


Protests
Protests!!!

  • Colonists will begin to unite in opposition to the Stamp Act

  • Sam Adams (MA) and the Sons of Liberty- violent resistance group

  • Their objective is to prevent the collection of stamp tax

  • Committees of Correspondence are established to spread information from colony to colony

  • Some protests will be more “gentlemanly”

  • Patrick Henry (VA)- “No taxation without representation”

  • Colonies should be taxed by their own representatives


Stamp act congress
Stamp Act Congress

  • Colonial assemblies start to get on the same page

  • Delegates from 9 colonies meet up in NYC- 10/1765

  • Develop a Declaration of Rights and Grievances outlining complaints against Parliament

  • Boycotting British goods becomes a common practice

  • It’s encouraged by the Congress and enforced by the Sons of Liberty


Stamp act repealed
Stamp Act Repealed

  • The collective effort by the colonists will work

  • Stamp Act went into effect 11/1765

  • Under pressure from British merchants, Parliament repeals it 3/1766

  • BUT…on the very same day Parliament passes the Declaratory Act

  • This “reasserts” Parliamentary authority over the colonies

  • That’s all well and good, but the precedent has been set- American colonies can get England to back down


Townshend acts 1767
Townshend Acts 1767

  • England will start going through PM’s quickly

  • Charles Townshend introduces the Townshend Acts

  • Indirect, external tax on lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea

  • Colonists will employ the same protests from the Stamp Act

  • Townshend Acts will ultimately be repealed…all except the three-penny tax on tea

  • Additionally, Parliament will authorize 2,000 soldiers to be stationed in Boston (a John Hancock issue…)


March 5 1770
March 5, 1770

  • Tensions began to rise in Boston

  • Relationship between soldiers and colonists is generally poor

  • Competition for work is a big issue; February 1770 is pretty rough

  • Everything boils over on March 5th

  • Colonial mob begin protesting soldiers outside of Customs House

  • Shots ultimately fired by British soldiers

  • 5 colonists killed (Crispus Attucks)

  • MAJOR propaganda piece


The tea party
“The Tea Party”

  • After the Massacre, things quiet down for a bit

  • 1773- A run of tea parties

  • British East India Company (BEIC)- one of England’s oldest corporations

  • By the mid-1700s, BEIC was struggling financially and on verge of bankruptcy

  • In order to keep the BEIC viable, England will pass the Tea Act- establishes a monopoly on colonial tea trade for the BEIC

  • Big deal for the BEIC, but this act will severely undercut colonial merchants


The tea party1
“The Tea Party”

  • Local merchants + Sons of Liberty will be quick to respond

  • Dress themselves as Native Americans- get onboard ships, quickly and quietly try to dump as much tea as they can

  • Similar parties will take place in NYC, Philly, Charleston (SC)

  • Damage to merchandise will cripple and bankrupt BEIC

  • This is the final straw for England


The intolerable acts
The Intolerable Acts

  • The Intolerable Acts are designed to make an example out of Massachusetts

  • 1) Boston Harbor is closed down for commerce

  • 2) Martial law is instituted in the city of Boston

  • 3) Strict reinstitution of the Quartering Act

  • Boston, and by extension of Massachusetts, will be financially crippled


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