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PARTCIPATORY LEARNING FOR ACTION (PLA). CCIH CONFERENCE MAY 27-29, 2006 WORKSHOP Sri Chander WORLD VISION ASIA-PACIFIC REGION. PRESENTATION OUTLINE. HOW PLA IS UNIQUE COMPARED TO OTHER BASELINE TOOLS PLA REQUIRES A PARADIGM SHIFT

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Partcipatory learning for action pla

PARTCIPATORY LEARNING FOR ACTION (PLA)

CCIH CONFERENCE

MAY 27-29, 2006

WORKSHOP

Sri Chander

WORLD VISION

ASIA-PACIFIC REGION


Presentation outline

PRESENTATION OUTLINE

  • HOW PLA IS UNIQUE COMPARED TO OTHER BASELINE TOOLS

  • PLA REQUIRES A PARADIGM SHIFT

  • EFFECTIVE USES OF PLA

  • ‘HOW-TOs’ OF BASIC PLA EXERCISES

  • ‘HOW-TOs’ OF 10-SEED METHOD EXERCISES

  • CONCLUSIONS


Partcipatory learning for action pla

“DO QUALITATIVE

BEFOREQUANTITATIVE

BASELINES”

WHY ?


Partcipatory learning for action pla

QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGIES:

  • PLA—1 of most powerful tools

    • APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY (AI)

    • FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS (FGDs)

    • IN-DEPTH INTERVIEWS (IDIs)

    • OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES


Types of different qualitative approaches

TYPES OF DIFFERENT QUALITATIVE APPROACHES

  • PLA=an effective, low-cost, empowering, participatory method of gathering qualitative & semi-structured info (beliefs, behaviors)

  • Can discuss controversial/sensitive topics

    in a non-threatening way

  • Heterogeneous—in age, gender, income, religion, ethnicity, social class, etc

  • Flexible: people come and go--anything goes

  • No pre-set, leading questions

  • Who? What? Where? When? Where? How?

  • What else? What else? What else?....


Types of different qualitative approaches1

TYPES OF DIFFERENT QUALITATIVE APPROACHES

2. FGDs:

  • Homogeneous

  • pre-set questions

  • focused

    -- pre-assembled group

    -- time-limited


Types of different qualitative approaches2

TYPES OF DIFFERENT QUALITATIVE APPROACHES

3. AI

  • best practices/positive

    deviance

  • “what has worked best ?”

  • “promising practices”

  • success-oriented

    4. IDI

  • focus on key people, information


Partcipatory learning for action pla

APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY (AI)

  • An envisioning, planning process

  • Asks:

  • What do we do well ?(current strengths)

  • What do we need to do better ?(future vision)

  • What is causing the gap ? (problem analysis)

  • How can we bridge the gap ? (strategy/action plan)

  • Focus on best practices, affirms strengths, builds on them to move to improve practices to create the desired future.

?


Participatory learning for action pla

PARTICIPATORY LEARNING FOR ACTION (PLA)

  • Needs a radical paradigm shift= a reversal of attitude, to learning from the community, of where they are at

  • Involves understanding the community

    from its world view

    in all its diverse complexity

    the restraints and limitations

    and the adverse environment which cumulatively result in

    POVERTY

  • Frequent triangulation needed to cross-verify info


Participatory learning for action pla1

PARTICIPATORY LEARNING FOR ACTION (PLA)

  • Involves use of a sequence of exercisesto understand the community and its survival strategy

  • Start only:

    --after rapport established with

    community

    --after clearly explaining to community

    that we ‘outsiders’ are there to learn

    from them


Participatory learning for action pla2

PARTICIPATORY LEARNING FOR ACTION (PLA)

Is effective because

it seeks to understand

the SURVIVAL STRATEGY of

the community,

appraise it

and show ways to

enhance the capability of that effort

to ensure sustainability


Participatory learning for action pla3

PARTICIPATORY LEARNING FOR ACTION (PLA)

  • Sequence of PLA exercisesanalyses

    write a1-2 page storyof the

    community

    feedbackit to them for validation/

    triangulation

  • Assist them to do a Capability/ Vulne-rability (C/V) Analysis of themselves

  • Facilitate them to develop a Community Development Resource Plan (CDRP)


Uses of participatory learning for action pla

USES OF PARTICIPATORY LEARNING FOR ACTION (PLA)

  • A COMMUNITY MIRROR: BLIND SPOTS

  • IDENTIFY KNOWLEDGE-PRACTICE GAPS

  • ASSESS COMMUNITY CAPABILITIES/ VULNERABILITIES/POTENTIAL

  • DESIGN MESSAGES, IMAGES & MATERIALS FOR BCC & TRAINING

  • FACILITATE CLIENT APPRAISAL OF SERVICE QUALITY

  • DEVELOP MICRO-LEVEL RESOURCE/ SUSTAINABILITY ACTION PLANS


Pla team members

PLA TEAM MEMBERS

  • FACILITATOR

  • RECODER

  • ‘FILTER”


Some common pla exercises 1

SOME COMMON PLA EXERCISES (1)

  • TIME LINE

  • TREND ANALYSIS

  • SEASONALITY DIAGRAMS

  • WEALTH (OR WELL-BEING) RANKING

  • CAUSAL DIAGRAMS

  • MATRIX RANKING

  • CHAPPATI DIAGRAM

  • PROFILE OF WOMEN’ WORK DAY

  • TRANSECTS


Some common pla exercises 2

SOME COMMON PLA EXERCISES (2)

  • CONFLICT ANALYSIS

  • BODY MAPPING OF A WOMAN

  • LIVELIHOOD ANALYSIS

  • PATTERNS OF LAND USE


Integrated outputs of pla exercises

INTEGRATED OUTPUTS OF PLA EXERCISES

  • ONE-PAGE STORY

  • VILLAGE/COMMUNITY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PLAN


Time line good ice breaker as 1 st ex

TIME LINEGOOD ICE-BREAKER AS 1ST EX

AIM: HISTORICAL REVIEW—MAJOR

EVENTS AND THEIR IMPACT;

THEIR SURVIVAL STRATEGY TO ADAPT

TO CHANGE

METHOD: ASKOLDER FOLKS HOW

VILLAGE GOT ITS NAME; OTHERS

JOIN IN; ASK ABT MAJOR EVENTS;

APPROX WHEN?

OUTPUT: CHART: APPROX YR (1 SIDE)+

EVENTS ON OTHER SIDE


Trend analysis

TREND ANALYSIS

AIM: UNDERSTAND HOW AGRICUL-

T URE, FORESTS, HEALTH, SEXUAL

PATTERNS, WORSHIP, EDUCATION,

etc, HAVE CHANGED OVER YRS

METHOD: ASK THEM TO DRAW

CHANGES IN PATTERNS FROM TIME

THEY WERE YOUNG UNTIL NOW

OUTPUT: RECALLABLE TRENDS INDI-

CATE CHANGES IN ATTITUDES/

ACTIONS


Seasonality diagram

SEASONALITY DIAGRAM`

AIM: UNDERSTAND HOW SEASONS (r/f) DETERMINE VILLAGE ACTIVITIES LIKE AGRIC, EMPLOYMENT, MIGRATION DISEASES, LOAN REQUIREMENTS, FESTIVALS, etc

METHOD: ASK TO IDENTIFY NAMES OF MONTHS, USING 12 STONES. USE SEEDS & ASK TO SHOW MONTH OF R/F, AGRIC, WORKLOAD, DISEASE INCIDENCE, FESTIVAL SEASON, SEASONS OF INCOME, LOAN NEEDS

OUTPUT: IDENTIFY CRISIS PERIODS NEED-ING OUTSIDE HELP; SEASONAL MIGRATION WHEN TO START NEW PROG/MODIFY CURR PROG-epI CALENDAR-DIARHHEA/MALARIA


Wealth or well being ranking

WEALTH (OR WELL-BEING) RANKING

AIM: TO LOCATE POOREST OF POOR , USING COMMUNITY’S ANALYTICAL POWERS TO COMPARE PRODUCTIVE PERSONS WITH LESS LAND WITH PERSONS W/ MORE LAND BUT LESS PRODUCTIVE

METHOD:

  • WRITE HH HEADS’ NAMES: PAPER SLIPS

  • PROFILE TYPES OF WEALTH GROUPS∞FOOD INTAKE, AGRIC, SOWING CAPACITY, FMILY SIZE, PROPERTY, USE OF VEHICLE/LUXURY ITEMS

  • CLASSIFY PAPER SLIPS∞WEALTH GRPS

  • CAN FURTHER CLASSIFY IN SERIAL ORDER

    OUTPUT:

  • IDENTIFY POOREST OF POOR WHO NEED HELP 1ST FOR CHILD SPONSORSHIP/ MED


Causal diagrams

CAUSAL DIAGRAMS

AIM: UNDERSTAND:

  • HOW THINGS LINK WITH EACH OTHER & WHAT THEY LEAD TO

  • CHANGES NEEDED TO REVERSE PROCESS

    METHOD:

  • IDENTIFY MOST IMPT PROBLEM: put in center

  • LIST CAUSES/TRACE BACKWARDS W/ ARROWS

  • FIND WHAT HAPPENED?

  • RESULT: MAZE OF CIRCLES & ARROWS

    OUTPUT:

  • USE TO DISCUSS HOW TO OVERCOME PROBLEM

    Eg HIV/prostitution/’hidden’ diseases/malnutrition &

    service quality/abortions/barriers to FP/Bs, night

    blindness in children and pregnant women, TB in children


Matrix ranking or scoring

MATRIX RANKING OR SCORING

AIM:

  • UNDERSTAND RATIONALE OF

    VARIOUS CHOICES OF COMMUNITY

  • IDENTIFY REASONS FOR CHOICE OF CROPS, ENTERPRISE, HEALTH-SEEKING, BORROWING INTEREST RATES, EXPENDITURE PATTERNS,etc

    METHOD: USE TEN-SEED METHOD TO SCORE CHOICES

    OUTPUT: PIE CHART/RANK LIST OF CHOICES


Chappati venn diagram

CHAPPATI (VENN) DIAGRAM

AIM: UNDERSTAND

  • WHICH INSTITUTIONS/GRPS ARE IMPT TO COMMUNITY

  • LEVEL & FREQUENCY OF INTERACTIONS

    METHOD:

  • LIST IMPT PERSONS/INSTITUTIONS-- INT/EXT

  • PREPARE COLORED PAPER CIRCLES OF DIFF SIZES—LARGER=MORE IMPT

  • PLACE DOT IN CENTER OF FLOOR/WHITE PAPER

  • PLACE CIRCLES∞IMPT/FREQ OF INTERACTIONS

  • MORE IMPT/FREQ= PLACE IN CENTER

  • STICK TO WHITE PAPER AFTER CROSS-CHECK

  • DSICUSS CORELATION OF CIRCLES

    OUTPUT: CHAPPATI DIAGRAM OF POWER RELATIONSHIPS

    & DISCUSS WHICH/HOW INSITUTIONS TO STRENGTHEN


Profile of a woman s day

PROFILE OF A WOMAN’S DAY

AIM: UNDERSTAND WORKLOAD OF WOMEN & DRUDGERY THEY FACE.

METHOD: MAINLY WITH WOMEN; MAN CAN

BE HINDRANCE. START WITH WAKE TIME

TO SLEEP TIME. USE DIFFERENT OBJECTS

TO REPRESENT DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES

OUTPUT: CHART OF WOMAN’S WORK DAY.

WOMEN-SENSITIVE PLANS FOR SUITABLE

TIME/DAY/PLACE FOR MEETING, TRAINING,

STARTING OF PROG

(eg—reaching SWs in Mumbai)


Transects

TRANSECTS

AIM: QUICK ANALYTICAL STOCK OF COMM

RESOURCES, PROBLEMS FACED, & POTEN-

TIAL OPPORTUNITIESFOR INTERVENTION

METHOD:

  • DRAW RESOURCE MAP—MARK PATH THRU’ MOST RESOURCES EN ROUTE=TRANSECT

  • WALK ALONG ROUTE—OBSERVE& ASK SOIL & LAND TYPE, CROP CULTIVATION IN DIFF SEASONS, TREES, ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, FISH, PROBLEMS, OPPORTUNITIES

    OUTPUT: DETAILED INVENMTORY OF RESOURCES MATCHED WITH SPECIFIC PROBLEMS AND POTENTIAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR DEVELOPMENT


Conflict analysis

CONFLICT ANALYSIS

AIM:

  • UNDERSTAND LOCAL CAUSES OF CONFLICT & MEANS OF RESOLVING THEM

  • BE SENSITIVE TO POWER STRUCTURES

    METHOD: (BEST 2ND OR 3RD DAY OF EXs)

  • LIST ALL CAUSES OF CONFLICT

  • IMAGINE ALL CONFLICTS EQUAL TO 1 Rp

  • MARK OUT CHUNKS TO REPRESENT # OF paise TO INDICATE PART PLAYED BY EACH CAUSE

    OUTPUT:

  • PIE DIAGRAM

  • DISCUSS HOW TO RESOLVE CONFLICT


Body mapping of a woman

BODY MAPPING OF A WOMAN

AIM: HELP WOMEN UNDERSTAND BODY PARTS & FUNCTIONS

METHOD: PREFERABLY WITH MARRIED

WOMEN ONLY

  • ASK TO DRAW OUT PICTURE OF WOMAN

  • LABEL BODY PARTS

  • DISCUSS FUNCTION OF EACH PARTS

    OUTPUT: PICTURE WITH BODY PARTS

    KEY FUNCTIONS AND KEY PROBLEMS

    DISCUSSED; LOCAL TREATMENT OF HIDDEN

    WOMEN’S DISEASES DISCUSSED


Livelihood analysis

LIVELIHOOD ANALYSIS

AIM: UNDERSTAND COMMUNITY

OPTIONS TO EARN A LIVING

METHOD: USE TEN-SEED METHOD

TO SCORE CHOICES (SIMILAR TO

MATRIX RANKING EXERCISE)

OUTPUT:PIE CHART/RANK LIST OF

CHOICES


Patterns of land use

PATTERNS OF LAND USE

AIM: UNDERSTAND HOW COMMUNITY

HAS MADE USE OF ITS LAND

RESOURCES

METHOD:USE TEN-SEED METHOD

TO SCORE CHOICES (SIMILAR TO

MATRIX RANKING EXERCISE)

OUTPUT:PIE CHART/RANK LIST OF

CHOICES


Ten seed techniques for hiv prog

TEN-SEED TECHNIQUES FOR HIV PROG:

  • ESTIMATING MULTI-PARTNER SEX IN THE COMMUNITY

  • KAP/RISK PERCEPTION--HIV/AIDS/STI

    --IN COMMUNITY

    --IN SEX WORKERS

    --IN SEX WORKERSS’ CLIENTS

  • ESTIMATING ALCOHOLISM, esp OF SW CLIENTS & HUSBANDS

  • CONDOM USE/ACCESS/PREFERENCE

  • SEX WORKER PATRONAGE—FREQ, COST & REASONS

  • HH FOOD SECURITY & HIV VULNERABILITY


Ten seed method for cs rh programs

TEN SEED METHOD FOR CS/RH PROGRAMS

  • ASSESS WOMEN’S DEMAND FOR BIRTH SPACING/FAMILY PLANNING

  • AS PRACTICE OF USING ABORTION AS A FERTLITY CONTROL METHOD

  • K & A OF LEADERS TOWARDS ABSTINENCE & OCs for BS/FP

  • ASSESS P OF COLOSTRUM FEEDING, EBF, WEANING FOODS FROM 7TH MTH

  • COVERAGE WITH IMMUNIZATION AND VITAMIN A IN KIDS


One page story tying it all up

ONE PAGE STORY—TYING IT ALL UP

AIM: EXEC SUMMARY OF BACKGRD, PROBLEMS, SURVIVAL

STRATEGY & POTENTIAL OPPORTUNITIES

METHOD:

  • 1ST:ALL GRPS MAKE PRESENTATIONS

  • ALL MAKE OWN OBSERVTNS/ NOTES

  • GRPs PREPARE OWN 1-PG STORY

    CRITERIA: ONE PAGE, 3 PARAGRAPHS ONLY

  • HISTORY/PAST CRISES/KEY EVENTS

  • LIST MAJOR CAPABILITIES/VULNERABILITIES (C/V)

  • COMMUNITY SOLUTIONS TO OVERCOME VULNERABILITY

    PROCESS:

  • EACH GROUP READS 1-PAGE STORY

  • SELECT BEST & MOST CONCISE 1 PAGE STORY

  • READ PARA 1+ 2 TO COMMUNITY—ASK TO ADD, CORRECT OR MODIFY

    OUTPUT: SUMMARY FINDINGS BASED ON ALL EXERCISES

    CONDUCTED


Community resource development plan

COMMUNITY RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PLAN

PROCESS:

  • COMPLETE ALL BASIC PLA EXs

  • MEET COMMUNITY AT CENTRAL LOC

  • DISCUSS FINAL PLA FINDINGS

  • ASK COMMUNTIES TO IDENITFY CAPABILITIES/VULNERABILITIES (C/V analyses)

  • ENCOURAGE DEV PROG PLANNING:

    --PREPARE ROUGH POA LIST

    --SORT SEQ: No cost/no tech

    Low cist/local tech

    Medium cost/medium tech

    high cost/high tech

    --ENSURE ,OST ACTIVITIES BENEFIT POOREST OF PRROR AND MOST OF COMMUNITY

    --FILTER OUT ‘LOUD MOUTH’ VOICES

  • RE-DISCUSS SPECIFIC ACTIVITIES IN THEPOA

  • COMMIUNITY CHOOSES PERSONS RESPONSIBLE

  • COMMUNITY SELECXTS REVIEW TEAM TO TRACK PROGRESS

  • MARK/ASSIGN PLANS THAT NEED OUTSIDE HELP

  • ASSIST COMMUNITY TO DEVELOP COSTS/BUDGET


Time has proven and if we are honest we would also admit

TIME HAS PROVEN(And if we are honest we would also admit)

That

The community members are

THE BEST MANAGERS OF SCARCE RESOURCES

EXTERNAL EFFORTS JUST COMPLEMENT & ENHANCE THESE EFFORTS


Participatory learning for action pla4

PARTICIPATORY LEARNING FOR ACTION (PLA)

Is effective because

it seeks to understand

the SURVIVAL STRATEGY of

the community,

appraise it

and show ways to

enhance the capability of that effort

to ensure sustainability


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