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The Armies. America: No country, no army, no navy Vs British Empire, Royal Army, Royal Navy. Americans. Continental Army Militia in State Lines Militia home guard Riflemen Associators Navy? Privateers Honor, virtue and discipline versus the “levelling spirit” and diversity. Recruiting.

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The Armies

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The Armies

  • America: No country, no army, no navy

  • Vs

  • British Empire, Royal Army, Royal Navy


Americans

  • Continental Army

  • Militia in State Lines

  • Militia home guard

  • Riflemen

  • Associators

  • Navy? Privateers

  • Honor, virtue and discipline versus the “levelling spirit” and diversity


Recruiting

  • Independent men versus the robot mercenaries


British

  • Regulars

    • Professional soldiers

    • Professional generals

    • Purchase system

  • “Tribalized”

  • Infantry (Foot), Grenadiers, “Light Bobs,” Dragoons, and Artillery

  • Keys: “self possession” and “presence of mind”

  • Fire in formation


British

  • Manual of arms


Other Hands

  • Highlanders

    • Kinship and Clan

  • Hessians’ “soldatenhandel”

    • Hesse-Cassel

      • Militarized society

      • “Expendable people”

    • Col. von Donop and Jager Corps

    • Col. Johann Rall


Invasion

  • June 28: intel

  • July-August: 400 ships, 73 war ships, 32000 troops (inc 8000 Hessians)

  • August 22: Brits amphibious assault on Long Island

  • August 26: Clinton and Cornwallis set off to flank American lines through Jamaica Pass

  • After a rout of Americans, Howe elects to undertake a siege of the American line at Brooklyn Heights.


New York

  • Admiral Richard Howe, General William Howe v. GW


Defeat and Survival

  • August 29

    • Washington orders evacuation of Long Island

  • September 15

    • Harlem Hgts

  • October 11

    • Arnold on Champlain

  • October 21

    • White Plains

  • November 13

    • Ft Washington

  • November 19

    • Ft Lee


New Jersey

  • Retreat to the Delaware


The Crisis

  • Christmas Eve: A Fateful decision. "Victory or Death"


The Crisis

  • December 23, 1776

    THESE are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph. What we obtain too cheap, we esteem too lightly: it is dearness only that gives every thing its value. Heaven knows how to put a proper price upon its goods; and it would be strange indeed if so celestial an article as FREEDOM should not be highly rated. Britain, with an army to enforce her tyranny, has declared that she has a right (not only to TAX) but "to BIND us in ALL CASES WHATSOEVER" and if being bound in that manner, is not slavery, then is there not such a thing as slavery upon earth.


“Crisis”

I turn with the warm ardor of a friend to those who have nobly stood, and are yet determined to stand the matter out: I call not upon a few, but upon all: not on this state or that state, but on every state: up and help us; lay your shoulders to the wheel; better have too much force than too little, when so great an object is at stake. Let it be told to the future world, that in the depth of winter, when nothing but hope and virtue could survive, that the city and the country, alarmed at one common danger, came forth to meet and to repulse it. Say not that thousands are gone, turn out your tens of thousands; throw not the burden of the day upon Providence, but "show your faith by your works," that God may bless you. It matters not where you live, or what rank of life you hold, the evil or the blessing will reach you all.


Trenton

  • Dawn attack 12-26-1775


Princeton: January 3, 1777


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