Brahman. The Human Condition –life is a journey to union with God but, when they remain ignorant of this, human beings suffer and are continually reborn. The Goals - to live a virtuous life and finally to achieve Moksha.
The Human Condition –life is a journey to union with God but, when they remain ignorant of this, human beings suffer and are continually reborn.
The Goals - to live a virtuous life and finally to achieve Moksha.
The Means – there are many paths which lead to Moksha. Brahman also has a role in the attainment of Moksha.
Kama Dharma Artha
Guru, rishi, swami
Who or What is Brahman ?
the ultimate reality behind existence
pure being – sat
pure consciousness – cit
pure bliss – ananda
What aspects of Brahman are represented by the Trimurti ?
Creation – Brahma
Preserver – Vishnu
Destroyer – Shiva
What is the Atman ?
The real self.
The one that is permanent.
A spark of the divine Brahman
Hinduism is all about realising the Atman & Brahman are the same.
The Atman goes through samsara, and controls moral behaviour
Moksha ends the Atman’s journey.
What is Avidya ?
Ignorance; stops spiritual enlightenment or the union of the Atman & Brahman.
People sometimes claim to know something is true but they don't. Avidya is kept alive by materialism, Education is not the same as knowledge. (see Jnana Yoga)
What is samsara?
What Is Dharma ?
Right Conduct – behave yourself, duty of your caste/varna and your obligation or responsibility to society.
Religious or moral duty relating to specific varna and stage in life.
It gives order to the world – we all know what we should do allowing a harmonized universe.
Personal code of conduct.
Affects a person’s journey through samsara.
How can a person affect samsara through their dharma?
What is Samadhi ?
It means enlightenment.
It means realising who Brahman really is.
It is the final state of the Atman, and you have no sense of 'I' or 'mine'
The highest state that someone who practices yoga/meditation can reach
What is Moksha?
Why is Moksha Important to Hindus ?
The ultimate goal for a Hindu is to achieve Moksha. Without re-uniting with Brahman, your Atman/soul can never be at peace.
It encourages Hindus to lead a good/honest and peaceful life because to achieve Moksha requires good karma & following Dharma – varnashramadharma
Gives hope of a better life after this one
Why/when is Moksha not important to some Hindus?
Many Hindus struggle to survive from day to day and do not think about life after death.
Moksha has too many stages and some Hindus do not think it is achievable.
Scientific development has lead many Hindus to question the concept of reincarnation.
What does varna mean?
What are the 4 varnas?
Who are the Brahmins ?
They are priests and those in a higher professions, i.e. teachers & doctors.
They understand and study Hindu teachings.
They set a good moral example for others by remaining pure in words and deeds.
Who are the Kshatriyas ?
They are the rulers & military forces in society, such as royal family, prime minister, members of the government and officers in the armed forces.
They are leaders, and protectors and guard the welfare of the people.
They were a secular (non-religious) power responsible for enforcing dharma.
Who are the Vaishyas ?
They are the business people in society. They deal with money and commercial activities i.e. traders, bankers, financial advisers, solicitors and directors.
They were farmers or peasants involved in agriculture to provide food.
They are responsible for providing the material goods & the wealth in society.
Who are the Shudras ?
Skilled workers eg potters, weavers and servants.
The working class. i.e. workers, labourers, factory workers and builders.
They do the physical and manual workers, serving the needs of others.
They were banned from access to scriptures.
Could not be twice-born (sacred thread ceremony)
Who are the Untouchables ?
They are outside the caste system.
They deal with things considered unclean i.e. dead animals/rubbish.
Why are Varnas important for Hindu Society ?
Everyone is given a role and responsibility to produce a stable society.
It was based on occupation ensuring that society had a thriving society with everyone depending on each other.
Your caste reflects your position and status in terms of a persons karma and therefore reincarnation.
It provides a moral incentive for all to improve their caste.
What are the 4 Ashramas ?
Student Stage – Brahmacharya
Householder Stage – Grihastha
Retirement Stage – Vanaprasta
Renunciation Stage – Sunnyasin
What is Brahmacharya ?
This begins with the initiation rite of the sacred thread called upanayana preformed only by boys in the upper 3 castes
Students study Hindu scripture.
What is Grihastha?
This begins when the student returns from his studies, marries, produces children and takes on the duties of a householder.
This stage is considered very important.
What is Vanaprastha?
This stage occurs when the children are grown up and able to run their own lives.
To become detached from worldly goods, go on pilgrimages.
What is Sunnyasin?
Practices detachment and renunciation from all worldly possessions
To give up all worldly ties, possessions, family and even name and devoting one's entire life to the spiritual god of liberation or moksha.
Some become a wandering holy man (sadhu)
What are the Three Margas ?
Karma yoga including 'seva' – charity work
Bhakti yoga including 'puja‘ - worship
Jnana yoga – Meditation & learning
A form of following dharma
What is Ahimsa ?
Means non-violence to all things, this is because Hindus believe in the 'specialness' of all life.
All life is involved in samsara.
Gandhi followed ahimsa.
Some Hindus reject it because if we don't defend ourselves we can allow suffering to happen. This might mean poor karma and not following your dharma.
What is God’s Grace?