“The New Faces in African Mining”. Sam Chikowore – Exporien Mining Zimbabwe Mining and Infrastructure Indaba 2013. WHO ARE THEY?. THE ARTISANAL MINERS THE MINING CO-OPERATIVES WOMEN MINING CO-OPERATIVES THE JUNIOR MINING COMPANIES. THE ARTISANAL MINERS.
Sam Chikowore – Exporien Mining
Zimbabwe Mining and Infrastructure Indaba
Harms (2008) explains that as cooperatives are “participative self-help organizations … members are also co-owners and have both the rights and obligations of participating in goal-setting, decision-making and control or evaluation processes of their cooperative.” Members must act as “both users and owners in the development of cooperative organizations.” Participation is required at three levels: firstly, in the provision of resources (inputs such as capital, labour, produce), in decision-making, and in receiving benefits.
When indirect labour, induced employment, and fertility rates (4.6 percent) are considered, about two-thirds of the women, men, and children in the Central African Republic may directly or indirectly rely on artisanal diamond mining.
Liberia- there are an estimated 50,000–75,000 artisanal diamond miners in Liberia, of whom about 10–20 percent are women, most of whom pan for gold at diamond sites. If half of their combined income is spent on local goods and services, more than $13.5 million may be injected into local economies, creating markets for locally grown or supplied products and increasing the cash component of household incomes.
Mozambique- a study was conducted in the Manica Province, near the Zimbabwean border.
Tanzania- roughly 1 million may be involved in ASM—approximately 25 percent of whom are women—and that direct and secondary employment from ASM may exceed 7 million Tanzanians, or 31.5 percent of the country’s working-age population.
Uganda- almost 200,000women(45 percent) and men(55 percent) are engaged in artisanal mining of gold, tin, coltan, wolfram, and a range of industrial minerals. The average miner is estimated to contribute almost 20 times more to GDP than those employed in farming, fishing, and forestry. In 2008, informal(uncaptured) estimates of gold, tin, coltan, and wolfram sales suggested that ASM was actually the country’s third highest foreign exchange earner. Its contributions are expected to have grown since, with increased commodity prices and the rising number of artisanal miners.
Clearly, ASM has the potential to be an engine for development. A number of critical factors determine whether this potential can be realized, among them the need to formalize ASM; redress the poor culture of savings and skills to professionalize operations; increase access to suitable micro-financing and appropriate, intermediate technologies; and ensure that any efforts to tackle these issues equitably benefit women and men.
It is anticipated that junior exploration companies will be the major source of future mine supply. They find promising properties, prove the resource- the raw material and bring mines into production. With highly trained geologists, geophysicists and engineers on staff, it is the junior mining company that typically is best positioned to determine whether a property is economically viable. Juniors are critical players in the early stages, bridging the long lag time between when a new deposit is found and when it is brought into production.
LAND DEGRADATION REMAINS WORRYSOME AS UGLY SCARS ARE LEFT ON THE FACE OF THE EARTH WITH WATER WAYS FACING IMMINENT SILTATION.
AS WORLD ECONOMICS NOW AND GOING AHEAD DEMAND MORE AGILE AND SWIFT TRANSACTIONS, THE ARTISANAL AND SMALL-SCALE MINING IN SYMBIOSIS WITH THE JUNIOR MINING COMPANIES, REFLECT THE FACE OF AFRICAN MINING NOW AND GOING INTO THE FUTURE.