Ontogenetics nature vs nurture
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OntoGenetics Nature vs. Nurture. Nature: Genetics. Hair color. Skin color. freckles. Widows peak. gene. Eye color. Deoxyribonucleic Acid. chromosomes. DNA means ______________________ Make up your ____________________.

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OntoGenetics Nature vs. Nurture

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Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

OntoGeneticsNature vs. Nurture


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Nature: Genetics


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Hair color

Skin color

freckles

Widows peak

gene

Eye color


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

chromosomes

  • DNA means ______________________

  • Make up your ____________________.

    • Consists of many _____________ that genetically code for each of your _________.

genes

traits

What happens if the “code” fails or is changed???

______________________

Mutation


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Protein Synthesis

How traits are made...

RNA

Copies DNA gene code

DNA

PROTEIN that makes your eyes blue!!


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Sex Chromosomes

Autosomes

determines gender

Determines everything else!!


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Sex-linked genes

  • Located on the sex chromosome (usually the X since it’s much larger than the Y).

  • Called “sex-linked” genes

    • popular examples are Color Blindness, Fragile X syndrome, Muscular Dystrophy, and Hemophilia

Why are they different?

Mom

Dad

X

X

X

Y

Determines NOT ONLY SEX, but also many sex characteristics!!

MALE

X

Y

FEMALE

X

X


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Mom

Dad

X

X

X

Y

Color Blindness

X

X

Carrier female

X

Y

Normal male

X

X

Carrier Female

X

Y

Normal male

Why can Dad NOT pass on the defect to his sons???


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Mom

Dad

X

X

X

Y

Color Blindness

X

X

Carrier female

X

Y

affected male

X

X

Normal Female

X

Y

Normal male

Which gender does Mom pass the defect on to??


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

  • A female with a defective X has a 2nd “good X” to compensate for the problem

  • A male, on the other hand, only has one X, so if he gets a defective one, he’s stuck with the disorder!

  • Males can not pass on their defect to a son. Why?

  • _____________________________________________________

Males do not pass on an X to a son, only a Y

What is the only way for a female to have the disorder?

______________________________________________________

If she gets 2 BAD X’s, one from each parent!


Sex limited genes

Sex-Limited Genes

Since only men go bald, you might think the balding gene is on the sex chromosome, but it’s not. It’s found on the 11th. Why then, don’t more women show baldness?

  • Genes that are present in both sexes, but influences only one.

  • Found on autosomes (not sex), but has effect on only one sex.

    • Ex: Chest hair, baldness, and breast size in humans.


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Heritability

Is a trait inherited or is it learned from experience…..

NATURE vs. NURTURE

Are you a good singer because of your genes, or because you practice a lot?

Heritability is a mathematical proportion indicating the extent of inheritance and/or the extent of non-inheritable factors (such as environment).

SCALE

0

1

100% environmental

“low heritability”

100% inherited

“high heritability”


Heritability

Heritability

  • Adopted children

    • Resembling their adoptive parents would indicate...

    • Resembling their biological parents would indicate…

Low heritability

High heritability


Heritablity cont

HERITABLITY (cont.)

“Monozygotic twins ” Identical twins (same DNA)

“Dizygotic twins” Fraternal twins (different DNA)

Where on the heritability scale would these scenarios fall?

Strong resemblance in monozygotic twins??

High heritability

Equal resemblance in both sets of twins??

Low heritablity

Most behaviors are a combination of both heredity and environmental influences!


Phenylketonuria pku

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

  • Genetics condition characterized by mental retardation. It is caused by diet.

  • Inability to metabolize the amino acid Phenylalanine. It builds up to toxic levels in people with the disorder.

  • Eliminate the amino acid from the diet, and eliminate its effects!

  • It is heritable, but can be modified by following a particular diet!!


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Evolution

You do not carry your genes around as a way of reproducing yourself…

Your genes carry you around as a way of reproducing themselves.


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

A cat quick enough to snatch a bird successfully today might not be speedy enough to catch the next generation of birds, because only the swiftest of yesterday’s birds remain to provide offspring.


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Why do girls cry more often than guys?


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Functional


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Altruism


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Primates grooming

Ants working

Bees die after stinging


Reciprocal altruism

Reciprocal Altruism

  • I’ll scratch your back if you scratch mine.

These primates help others with the understanding that that help will be returned.


Ontogenetics nature vs nurture

Altruistic behavior??


Kin selection

Kin Selection

Altruism toward a relative.

Although it may be dangerous for a mother to protect her young, it ensures the passing of her genes…including the altruistic gene!!

Therefore, it helps the spread of altruism within the species.


Altruism video

Altruism Video

Battle at Krueger


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