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Chapter Eight. Contact and Interaction. Chapter 8 Slide 1. Learning Objectives. What were the different types of contact and interaction that took place in ancient India, China and Southeast Asia? What were the impact of these contact and interaction on the ancient people?

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Chapter Eight

Contact and Interaction

Chapter 8 Slide 1


Learning Objectives

What were the different types of contact and interaction that took place in ancient India, China and Southeast Asia?

What were the impact of these contact and interaction on the ancient people?

How did the ancient people respond to contact and interaction?

Chapter 8 Slide 2


Talk to your partner!

Have you travelled to other countries?

What was the purpose of your travel?

What did you learn or observe during your travel?

Do you notice that there is increased contact and interaction among people today?

Why do you think this is so?


Chapter 8 Slide 3


Chapter 8 Slide 3



What Is …?

Overland Trade

Maritime Trade

Chapter 8 Slide 4


What Is …?

Overland Trade

Trade conducted by those who travel across land

Maritime Trade

Trade conducted by those who travel by sea

Chapter 8 Slide 4


Advantages

Able to obtain scarce resources by traveling to other countries.

Able to return home with new ideas and goods from different cultures.

Able to obtain scarce resources by traveling even further to other countries.

Overland Trade

Risk

Wild animals and armed robbers are a threat to the traders and the livestock.


Advantages

Able to obtain scarce resources by traveling even further to other countries.

Able to return home with new ideas and goods from different cultures.

If you decide to build a port, ships will stop there and trade with the local people. This will improve the economy of your country.

Risk

Pirates may attack and rob ships at sea

Maritime

trade


What Is…?

Territorial Expansion

Diplomacy

Chapter 8 Slide 5


What Is…?

Territorial Expansion

Waging war on other kingdoms to control more land or trade routes and obtain more wealth

Diplomacy

Forming peaceful relations with other countries

Chapter 8 Slide 5


Advantages

Able to obtain scarce resources.

Able to expand empire

Territorial expansion

Risk

May fail and lose your own empire.

Need to spend precious resources building an army and buying weapons.


Advantages

Able to obtain scare resources without investing resources to build an army.

Able to gain the protection of other countries when your territory is under attack.

Goods and ideas will be exchanged freely amongst the countries with diplomatic ties.

Diplomatic relations

Risks

Countries may not honour their diplomatic ties during a war.

Need to invest precious resources ensuring diplomatic ties (for example, paying your diplomats.)


Source A: An excerpt from an Indian history book about the Chola Empire

Under his son Rajendra Chola I, the dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Its power spread to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook, by overthrowing the empire of Srivijaya through naval wars and by sending ambassadors repeatedly to China. He sent a victorious expedition to North India and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala.

Study Source A. What can Source A tell you about the contact and interaction of the Chola empire in the 10th century CE?


Source A tells me : Chola Empire

1.) The Chola empire established contact and interaction with other civilisations through territorial expansion.

Evidence: ‘overthrowing the empire of Srivijaya through naval wars’ and ‘defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra, Mahipala’.

2.) Trade was also a form of contact and interaction with other civilisations.

Evidence: ‘military, economic, and cultural power in South Asia and Southeast Asia’ and ‘by sending ambassadors repeatedly to China’.

This suggests that the Chola empire had great influence in the maritime sea routes in Southeast Asia.

The empire also sent ambassadors to China and was likely to pay tribute to China in order to trade with China freely.


Overland trade in india
Overland trade in Chola Empireindia


Pearls, corals and timber were found near the Indus Valley. Chola Empire

In other parts of India, copper tools and cotton cloth from the Indus Valley were found.

Q: What does this show?


Overland Trade in India Chola Empire

1) Archaeologists have found evidence that the Indus Valley Civilisation traded with other parts of India, exchanging their copper tools and cotton textiles for pearls, coral, or hardwood.

2.) Indus people traded with other people from the Indian subcontinent.

Chapter 8 Slide 6


2.) No proper roads Chola Empire

Overland trade was dangerous as traders had to endure rough and rocky roads, and threats from wild animals as well as robbers.

Q: What did traders do?


2. No proper roads Chola Empire

They learned to band together in groups of 500 men in order to be able to protect themselves as they travelled along the rough roads.


2.) No proper roads Chola Empire

By the Mauryan Dynasty(c332-185BCE), there was an extensive network of trade routes between India and the Middle East, and the Mauryans and Guptas ensured that the roads were well-maintained for the comfort of the traders.


The town of Jaisalmer Chola Empire

2.) No proper roads

Because of the large number of traders using the protected routes, the towns along the way prospered (e.g.: Jaisalmer), as overland trade continued in the 18th century CE.

Look at pg. 127 fig 8.2 of your textbook. Why do you think Jaisalmer was surrounded by such walls? What can you infer about the town and its people from this?


Overland Trade in India Chola Empire

  • The Indus people traded with other parts of India, but the routes were difficult and dangerous.

  • By the Mauryan period, proper roads covered the whole of India; there were also overland routes between India and the Middle East.

  • Towns along overland routes grew and prospered.

Chapter 8 Slide 6


Maritime trade in india
Maritime trade in Chola Empireindia


Mesopotamian seal Chola Empire

Indus seal

Q: What common features do you see?

Source A: Seal from Mesopotamian (Present day Iran)

Source B: Seal from Indus Valley


Q: What can you infer from this source about the route they took for maritime trade? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

From Source C: A BBC website on trading in the Indus Valley civilisation.

Sargon of Akkad (2334 to 2279 BC) was a king in Mesopotamia. This was one of the first ancient civilisations.

Sargon's scribes kept written records of ships from other lands. So we learn that the Mesopotamians bought gold, copper and jewellery from 'Meluhha'. Was Meluhha the Mesopotamian name for the Indus civilisation? Or was it the Indus Valley people's own name for their land?

To reach Mesopotamia, Indus ships sailed west. They probably kept close to land. Bits of old Indus pottery found on beaches in Oman, in the Gulf, came from storage jars left behind by traders.


Q: What can you infer from this source about the route they took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

From Source C: A BBC website on trading in the Indus Valley civilisation.

Sargon of Akkad (2334 to 2279 BC) was a king in Mesopotamia. This was one of the first ancient civilisations.

Sargon's scribes kept written records of ships from other lands. So we learn that the Mesopotamians bought gold, copper and jewellery from 'Meluhha'. Was Meluhha the Mesopotamian name for the Indus civilisation? Or was it the Indus Valley people's own name for their land?

To reach Mesopotamia, Indus ships sailed west. They probably kept close to land. Bits of old Indus pottery found on beaches in Oman, in the Gulf, came from storage jars left behind by traders.


Maritime Trade in India took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

  • 1.) Indus people used sail boats to travel along the coastlines of Persia (Iran), Arabia and India

  • An ancient port was found near the Indus Valley, with docks for ships to load and unload their goods.

  • Seals from Indus Valley were found in Mesopotamia (present day Iraq)

  • Seals from Mesopotamia were found in Indus Valley sites

  • Indus people might have borrowed the idea of using seals to mark goods from Mesopotamians

Chapter 8 Slide 7


Maritime Trade in India took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

2.) Sea routes began around 1 CE

Seasonal monsoon patterns of the Indian Ocean were discovered by Greek ship captain Hippalus

  • Group activity

  • You are to fill in, with the help of your textbook, the answers to the questions.

  • Join the pieces together in a map.

  • Trace out the route taken by Indian traders.

Chapter 8 Slide 8


The Monsoon Patterns took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

http://www.rgs.org/webcasts/activities/monsoonindia.html

Chapter 8 Slide 9


Maritime Trade in India took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

3a.) Sea travel aided by monsoon winds

  • From April to October : Southwest Monsoons propel ships from East Africa, Arabia and the Persian Gulf to India

  • From November to March: NE monsoons carry the ships back to their home ports.

Chapter 8 Slide 8


Maritime Trade in India took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

3b.) Sailors later discovered similar wind patterns in the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea, which greatly enhance trade between India and China.

  • The journey between India and China could not be completed in a single monsoon season.

Chapter 8 Slide 8


Q: How would maritime trade have affected Southeast Asia? took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)


Maritime Trade in India took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

3b.) Sailors later discovered similar wind patterns in the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea, which greatly enhance trade between India and China.

  • The journey between India and China could not be completed in a single monsoon season.

  • SEA ports prospered as the ships had to stop there. They traded with Southeast Asian traders as well.

Chapter 8 Slide 8


Maritime Trade in India took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

4.) Maritime trade increased greatly between the Roman Empire, India, Southeast Asia and China.

Q: What problems would the traders encounter while travelling across the seas?

Chapter 8 Slide 8


Maritime Trade in India took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

4.) Maritime trade increased greatly between the Roman Empire, India, Southeast Asia and China.

In 1025 CE, King Rajendra of the Chola Dynasty sent a fleet of armed ships to Sumatra, Myanmar and the Malay Peninsula in order to keep the ships safe from pirates.

Chapter 8 Slide 8


Maritime Trade in India took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

The Indus people sailed along the coast of Persia to trade with the people of Mesopotamia.

The Indus people may have borrowed the idea of using seals to mark ownership from the Mesopotamians.

The monsoon patterns allowed Indian maritime trade to expand to Rome, China and Southeast Asia.

The problem of piracy forced some rulers to send naval expeditions to suppress piracy.

Chapter 8 Slide 8


Territorial Expansion in India took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

  • Aryans moved into Ganges Plains c. 1500 BCE

  • Consequence: Sanskrit language and culture gradually spread to other parts of India

Chapter 8 Slide 10


  • Indus Valley conquered by Alexander the Great in 326 BCE took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

  • Consequences:

  • Chaos and disorder in northern India allowed Chandragupta to establish rule

  • Direct trade contact between India and the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea was established

Chapter 8 Slide 11


Diplomacy took for maritime trade ? Look at the map on page 126 (fig 8.1)

  • Diplomatic relations with kingdoms and empires outside India

  • E.g. Greek Ambassador named Megasthenes stationed at Pataliputra, capital of the Gupta empire

Chapter 8 Slide 12


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