Nutritional standards nfsc 100
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NUTRITIONAL STANDARDS NFSC 100. DRI Food Labels Dietary Guidelines My Pyramid. Nutrition Standards: A diet should be balanced and adequate. For more than 50 years, the RDA, Recommended Dietary Allowances, was the nutritional standard Focus:

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Food Labels

Dietary Guidelines

My Pyramid

Nutrition Standards:A diet should be balanced and adequate

  • For more than 50 years, the RDA, Recommended Dietary Allowances, was the nutritional standard

    • Focus:

  • Now is being replaced by the DRIs, Dietary Reference Intakes.

Difference Between Old RDA and New DRI:

  • DRIs use more than one set of values,

  • Focus on ________________________, not just preventing deficiency, and

  • Recognize a need, in this age of supplementation, for a _______________


DRI: Dietary Reference Intakes4 values:

  • EAR Estimated Average Requirement

    • (population averages – used for research and public policy setting)

  • RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowances

    • safe and adequate intakes for most healthy people

  • AI : Adequate intakes

    • (nutrient goals for individuals – set when there’s not enough scientific evidence to set an RDA), and

  • UL: Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

A Note about the RDA/DRI

  • Margin for safety -- not a minimum requirement

  • Meant to be met with food (big rocks)



Food Labels

Dietary Guidelines

My Pyramid

Food Labels

  • Ingredients List

    • descending order by weight

  • Beverages w/juice must declare %juice

  • Weight:

    1 oz. = 28.4g

    (or about 30g)

    130 mg

    %DV = % Daily Value

    • Based on a 2000 kcal diet and the following reference values:

      • Total fat: less than 65g

      • Sat’d fat: less than 20g

      • Cholesterol: less than 300mg

      • Sodium: less than 2400mg

      • Total CHO: 300g

      • Protein: 25g

    Food Label

    Legal Terms for Food Labels

    • Low fat: 3 g fat per serving.

    • Low saturated fat: 1 g sat’d fat per serving.

    • Low cholesterol: 20 mg cholesterol per serving.

    • Low sodium:  140 mg per serving.

    • High fiber: 5 g or more fiber per serving

    • Good source: One serving provides at least 10% DV for a particular nutrient.

    • High in/Excellent Source: 20%+ DV for a particular nutrient

    • Reduced/Less: 25% less fat or fewer kcals than the regular (reference) food.

    130 mg

    Calculating % Kcals From Macronutrients

    • 1. Convert grams to kcals.

      • Prot. kcals + CHO kcals + fat kcals = TOTAL KCALS

    … always label your units!

    • 2. Find % kcals from each macronutrient

    • Then you can compare these numbers to the standards.

    130 mg

    • Using the same example, calculate %kcals from saturated fat and sugar

    • Sat’d fat:

    • Sugar:

    Example 2:Calculate1. Total kcals2. % kcals from each macronutrient

    • Total fat: 3g

      • Saturated fat: 1g

    • Total Carbohydrate: 32g

    • Protein: 3g

    “Supplement Facts” Label

    • Manufacturers are not required to provide evidence of safety/efficacy

    • Burden of proof of safety and efficacy of a dietary supplement is on the FDA (Food and Drug Administration)



    Herb or botanical

    Amino acid




    Or any combination of the above

    Dietary Supplement

    Buyer-beware Market

    • Health/nutrition claims can legally be made as long as this appears on the label:

      • “This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease”


    • Ten-year plan (HP2010) to develop a science-based regulatory program for dietary supplements.

    • Legally, marketers of supplements “must have above board scientific evidence to support any health claims.”

    • FDA still has the burden of proof.

    • The industry is still largely unregulated.

    Issue of “doping”

    • IOC, NCAA, and other organizations have strict doping regulations

    • Essential nutrients are legal

    • Several supplements are prohibited

      This will be covered in our “ergogenic aids” lecture, but is briefly discussed in h. 1 of your text.

    • Note that several banned substances are available in over-the-counter-supplements, and may not be declared on the label. Athletes are subject to disqualification from an event if doping is detected.

    FDA List of Potentially Hazardous Supplements:(Be able to recognize these as potentially hazardous)

    • Chaparral – traditional American Indian medicine

      • Liver disease, possibly irreversible

    • Comfrey

      • Obstruction of blood flow to liver, possibly leading to death

    • Slimming, Dieter’s Tea

      • N/D/V/stomach cramps, chronic constipation, fainting, possible death

    Banned 12/31/03

    • Ephedra, ephedrine, ma huang, Chinese ephedra, epitonin

      • High bp, irregular heartbeat, nerve damage, injury, insomnia, tremors, headaches to seizures, heart attack, stroke, death

    • Germander

      • Liver disease, possibly leading to death

    • Lobelia (Indian Tobacco)

      • Breathing problems at low doses to sweating/rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, possible coma/death at higher dosages

    • Magnolia Stephania

      • Kidney disease, possibly leading to kidney failure and death

    • Willowbark – marketed as an aspirin free product, although it contains an ingredient which converts to the same active ingredient in aspirin

      • Rye syndrome (potentially fatal disease associated w/children who take aspirin while having chicken pox or flu symptoms), allergic reactions in adults

    • Wormwood

      • Neurological symptoms: numbness in legs and arms, loss of intellect, delirium, paralysis, and death.

    • For more info:

    • Science-based book on Herbs:

      “The Honest Herbal,” by Varro Tyler, Ph.D., Sc.D.,

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