Chapter 11 physical development in school age children
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Chapter 11: Physical Development in School-Age Children. 11.1 Growth of the Body 11.2 Motor Development 11.3 Children with Special Challenges. 11.1 Growth of the Body. Physical Growth Nutrition Tooth Development Vision. Physical Growth. Growth continues at steady pace

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Chapter 11: Physical Development in School-Age Children

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Chapter 11 physical development in school age children

Chapter 11: Physical Development in School-Age Children

  • 11.1 Growth of the Body

  • 11.2 Motor Development

  • 11.3 Children with Special Challenges


11 1 growth of the body

11.1 Growth of the Body

  • Physical Growth

  • Nutrition

  • Tooth Development

  • Vision


Physical growth

Physical Growth

  • Growth continues at steady pace

  • Boys and girls about the same size most of these years until girls enter puberty in late elementary school

  • Some short children may receive growth hormones, but this has negative effects

11.1 Growth of the Body


Average growth in school age children

Average Growth in School-Age Children


Nutrition

Nutrition

  • School-age children need to eat more than preschoolers

  • Children need to eat breakfast before school

  • Parents need to be involved in the treatment of juvenile obesity

11.1 Growth of the Body


Tooth development

Tooth Development

  • Beginning at 5 or 6 years, loss of primary teeth occurs at a rate of 4 teeth per year

  • Fluoride in toothpaste and drinking water helps prevent tooth decay

  • Malocclusion can be treated by orthodontia

11.1 Growth of the Body


Vision

Vision

  • Growth of eustachian tube helps reduce incidence of ear infections (otitis media)

  • Myopia occurs in approximately 24% of school-age children

  • Myopia usually emerges between 8 and 12 years

  • Both heredity and environment contribute to myopia

11.1 Growth of the Body


11 2 motor development

11.2 Motor Development

  • Growth of Motor Skills

  • Physical Fitness

  • Participating in Sports

  • Accidents


Growth of motor skills

Growth of Motor Skills

  • Improved motor skill due to increased size and strength (e.g., at 11 years can throw ball 3 times farther than at 6 years)

  • Girls excel in fine-motor skills and gross-motor skills that require balance and flexibility

  • Many gender differences due to attitudes about girls’ sports participation

11.2 Motor Development


Changing motor skills

Changing Motor Skills


Physical fitness

Physical Fitness

  • Most school children in U.S. are not physically fit

  • Children often spend much time standing around in phys ed classes

  • Many children engage in sedentary leisure activities (e.g., TV, computer games)

11.2 Motor Development


Participating in sports

Participating in Sports

  • Sports help children be physically fit, teach cognitive and social skills

  • Both boys and girls believe sports enhance self-esteem, teach skills and cooperation, and provide physical activity

  • Coaches should be positive and have realistic expectations

11.2 Motor Development


Reasons for sports participation

Reasons for Sports Participation


Accidents

Accidents

  • Car accidents (as passenger or pedestrian) and bike accidents are most common causes of injury and death

  • Parents can help by being good role models (seat belts, bike helmets) and by being realistic about child’s abilities

  • Safety often the focus of community and school programs

11.2 Motor Development


11 3 children with special challenges

11.3 Children with Special Challenges

  • Children with Learning Disabilities

  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

  • Children with Mental Retardation


Children with learning disabilities

Children with Learning Disabilities

  • Children with learning disabilities have normal intelligence, but have difficulty mastering academic material

  • Many different learning disabilities so difficult to diagnose and many different treatments

11.3 Children with Special Challenges


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

  • Show a combination of overactivity, inattention, and impulsivity

  • More common in boys than girls

  • Often treated with stimulant drugs, instructions on regulating behavior, and parent training

11.3 Children with Special Challenges


Persistence of adhd

Persistence of ADHD


Children with mental retardation

Children with Mental Retardation

  • Only 25% organic mental retardation, majority are familial mental retardation

  • Down Syndrome most common organic cause

  • The most severe forms are less common

  • 90% are mildly or educably retarded

11.3 Children with Special Challenges


Levels of mental retardation

Levels of Mental Retardation


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