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Alcedinidae (Kingfishers) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Trogoniformes. Meropidae (Bee-eaters). Momotidae (Motmots). Todidae (Todies). Alcedinidae (Kingfishers). Coraciiformes. Leptosomatidae (Cuckoo-roller). Coraciidae (Rollers). Brachypteraciidae (Ground Rollers). Upupidae (Hoopoes). Coliiformes. Phoeniculidae (Woodhoopoes).

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Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)

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Alcedinidae kingfishers

Trogoniformes

Meropidae (Bee-eaters)

Momotidae (Motmots)

Todidae (Todies)

Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)

Coraciiformes

Leptosomatidae (Cuckoo-roller)

Coraciidae (Rollers)

Brachypteraciidae (Ground Rollers)

Upupidae (Hoopoes)

Coliiformes

Phoeniculidae (Woodhoopoes)

Bucerotidae (Hornbills)


Alcedinidae kingfishers

Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

  • In the suborder Alcidines with the Todies and the Motmots

  • 3 subfamiles

  • ~ 17 Genera; ~ 91 species

  • Worldwide excluding polar regions

  • Only Coraciiformes in N. America

  • 3.9”, 0.3 ounce Affrican Dwarf Kingfisher

  • 18”, 17 ounce Laughing Kookaburra


Alcedinidae kingfishers1

Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Large heads with long thick bills and short necks


Alcedinidae kingfishers2

Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Most have rounded wings and short tail


Alcedinidae kingfishers3

Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Small, syndactyl feet


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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Fishing

  • Scan clear water from perch or while hovering

  • Dive bill first to capture aquatic prey

  • Return to perch & beat prey against tree/rock

  • Swallow prey head-first


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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Fishing

  • Hovering

  • Diving

  • Eating


Alcedinidae kingfishers

Momotidae (Motmots)

  • Alcedininae – River kingfishers

  • Most of the “fishing” kingfishers

  • 2 Genera; ~ 23 spp.

  • Old World

Todidae (Todies)

Alcedinidae

  • Cerylinae – Water Kingfishers

  • 3 Genera; 9 spp.

  • All of the new world kingfishers

  • 3 old world spp.

  • Daceloninae/Halcyoninae – Tree kingfishers

  • 12 Genera; ~ 59 spp.

  • Austalasian, Oriental, Paleoarctic

    • & Ethiopian


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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

  • 6 New World Species (Cerylinae)

  • 3 of those occur in the US

  • 2 of those occur in Arizona


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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

  • Belted Kingfisher

Arizona species

  • Green Kingfisher

Rufous

breast

Shaggy crest

White

belly

White collar &

Blue breastband

White collar

Small crest

Rufous bellyband


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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Arizona species

  • Green Kingfisher

    • Non-migratory

    • Secretive

    • Fish from perch close to the water

    • Fly a few inches above the surface of the water

    • Extreme southeast Arizona:

      • Upper San Pedro

      • Santa Cruz, Sonoita Creek, Cienega Creek, Arivaca Creek

Rufous bellyband


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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Arizona species

  • Belted Kingfisher

    • Neotropic Migrant

    • Loud calls and obvious perches

    • Fish from perch or by hovering

    • Central to eastern Arizona drainages:

      • Verde River

      • Black River

      • Upper Little Colorado River

    • Expanding breeding range: benefiting from human activities?

      • Crayfish

      • Construction

Rufous bellyband


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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Habitat requirements (for breeding areas)

  • Clear perennial water with reliable food source

  • Available nesting microsite


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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

  • Cavity nesters: burrows in dirt banks

    • River, stream, other water banks

    • Road banks

    • Gravel pits

  • Pair excavates burrow with bills and pulls dirt out with syndactyl feet

  • 2-3’/3-8’ long at an angle upward – flood prevention?


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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Biparental care - male and female:

  • Build nest cavity

  • Incubate eggs

  • Feed young (2-3 weeks after fledging)


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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Other notable kingfishers

  • Ringed Kingfisher – southern Texas

    • Larger than Belted

    • Rufous breast and smaller crest

  • Laughing Kookaburra

    • Largest kingfisher at 18”

    • Distinct “laughing” song used erroneously in many movies as a South American/African/Asian jungle sound (Australian native)

    • Reverse sexual size dimorphism (female larger)

  • Marquesas Kingfisher and Micronesian Kingfisher are both endangered


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