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Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)

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Trogoniformes. Meropidae (Bee-eaters). Momotidae (Motmots). Todidae (Todies). Alcedinidae (Kingfishers). Coraciiformes. Leptosomatidae (Cuckoo-roller). Coraciidae (Rollers). Brachypteraciidae (Ground Rollers). Upupidae (Hoopoes). Coliiformes. Phoeniculidae (Woodhoopoes).

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Presentation Transcript
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Trogoniformes

Meropidae (Bee-eaters)

Momotidae (Motmots)

Todidae (Todies)

Alcedinidae (Kingfishers)

Coraciiformes

Leptosomatidae (Cuckoo-roller)

Coraciidae (Rollers)

Brachypteraciidae (Ground Rollers)

Upupidae (Hoopoes)

Coliiformes

Phoeniculidae (Woodhoopoes)

Bucerotidae (Hornbills)

alcedinidae kingfishers
Alcedinidae - Kingfishers
  • In the suborder Alcidines with the Todies and the Motmots
  • 3 subfamiles
  • ~ 17 Genera; ~ 91 species
  • Worldwide excluding polar regions
  • Only Coraciiformes in N. America
  • 3.9”, 0.3 ounce Affrican Dwarf Kingfisher
  • 18”, 17 ounce Laughing Kookaburra
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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Large heads with long thick bills and short necks

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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Most have rounded wings and short tail

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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Small, syndactyl feet

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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Fishing

  • Scan clear water from perch or while hovering
  • Dive bill first to capture aquatic prey
  • Return to perch & beat prey against tree/rock
  • Swallow prey head-first
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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Fishing

  • Hovering
  • Diving
  • Eating
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Momotidae (Motmots)

  • Alcedininae – River kingfishers
  • Most of the “fishing” kingfishers
  • 2 Genera; ~ 23 spp.
  • Old World

Todidae (Todies)

Alcedinidae

  • Cerylinae – Water Kingfishers
  • 3 Genera; 9 spp.
  • All of the new world kingfishers
  • 3 old world spp.
  • Daceloninae/Halcyoninae – Tree kingfishers
  • 12 Genera; ~ 59 spp.
  • Austalasian, Oriental, Paleoarctic
    • & Ethiopian
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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers
  • 6 New World Species (Cerylinae)
  • 3 of those occur in the US
  • 2 of those occur in Arizona
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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers
  • Belted Kingfisher

Arizona species

  • Green Kingfisher

Rufous

breast

Shaggy crest

White

belly

White collar &

Blue breastband

White collar

Small crest

Rufous bellyband

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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Arizona species

  • Green Kingfisher
    • Non-migratory
    • Secretive
    • Fish from perch close to the water
    • Fly a few inches above the surface of the water
    • Extreme southeast Arizona:
      • Upper San Pedro
      • Santa Cruz, Sonoita Creek, Cienega Creek, Arivaca Creek

Rufous bellyband

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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Arizona species

  • Belted Kingfisher
    • Neotropic Migrant
    • Loud calls and obvious perches
    • Fish from perch or by hovering
    • Central to eastern Arizona drainages:
      • Verde River
      • Black River
      • Upper Little Colorado River
    • Expanding breeding range: benefiting from human activities?
          • Crayfish
          • Construction

Rufous bellyband

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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Habitat requirements (for breeding areas)

  • Clear perennial water with reliable food source
  • Available nesting microsite
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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers
  • Cavity nesters: burrows in dirt banks
    • River, stream, other water banks
    • Road banks
    • Gravel pits
  • Pair excavates burrow with bills and pulls dirt out with syndactyl feet
  • 2-3’/3-8’ long at an angle upward – flood prevention?
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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Biparental care - male and female:

  • Build nest cavity
  • Incubate eggs
  • Feed young (2-3 weeks after fledging)
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Alcedinidae - Kingfishers

Other notable kingfishers

  • Ringed Kingfisher – southern Texas
    • Larger than Belted
    • Rufous breast and smaller crest
  • Laughing Kookaburra
    • Largest kingfisher at 18”
    • Distinct “laughing” song used erroneously in many movies as a South American/African/Asian jungle sound (Australian native)
    • Reverse sexual size dimorphism (female larger)
  • Marquesas Kingfisher and Micronesian Kingfisher are both endangered
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