Skin Wrinkles. Sun damage causes wrinkles. The Sun. Wrinkled skin. Protection. T reatment. Skin proteins ( Elastin , collagen). The Sun. Wrinkled skin. UV: Large amounts kill cells Small amounts damage a cell’s DNA (gene mutations). UV radiation EM radiation
Sun damage causes wrinkles
Large amounts kill cells
Small amounts damage a cell’s DNA (gene mutations)
break particles into ions
free radicals are produced
Wearing clothes and sunscreen to absorb the UV
Specific skin creams and serums
Staying out of the sun in the shade
ALARA – reduce the risk as low as reasonably acceptable
UV breaks down collagen and reduces synthesis of new collagen
Collagen and elastin are structural proteins
Proteins can be enzymes or structural proteins
Genes are the codes for the body to make proteins.
Skin proteins (Elastin, collagen)
The genetic and environmental background of each individual would be the same.
The same skin type and previous damage.
The individual might mix up the creams and make the test invalid.
There might be large differences in the effectiveness of the creams which would not be helpful to the individual.
In a double-blind study, a topical vitamin C complex was applied to one half of the face and a placebo gel to the opposite side. Clinical evaluation of wrinkling, pigmentation, inflammation, and hydration was performed prior to the study at weeks 4, 8, and 12. The results showed a statistically significant improvement of the vitamin C-treated side, with decreased photoaging scores of the cheeks and the perioral area. The peri-orbital area improved in both the vitamin C and placebo-gel group, probably indicating improved hydration. The overall facial improvement of the vitamin C side was statistically significant. Biopsies showed increased collagen formation in the vitamin C group. This study showed that topically applied vitamin C results in clinically visible and statistically significant improvement in wrinkling when used for 12 weeks. This clinical improvement correlated with biopsy evidence of new collagen formation (Fitzpatrick et al. 2002).In response, cosmetic companies have increased the percentages of active ingredients with the goal of replicating the antiaging effects revealed in the published studies.
The problem of increasing the level of active ingredients is that the wrong layers of the skin can be overly saturated resulting in irritation and reduced efficacy.
The first step in resolving this problem is to encase the active ingredients so that they can be absorbed through the top layer into the lower layers of the skin where they are most active. The second step is to design a delayed release system so that the active ingredients can be released over an extended amount of time.
“Public understanding of Science” in the media and advertising
Biology B7 Pre-Release 2011
1. Scientists thought that the new cream was an improvement on other anti-wrinkle cream. What was their evidence?
A study found people who used the cream for a year had fewer wrinkles. The wrinkles were also smaller.
A study where an investigation is carried out, controlling other factors to make the test fair and accurate and where the conclusion is based on sufficient results so that it is reliable.
The results of the study will have been peer-reviewed before being published in a Medical Journal.
100% . This is the same as “twice as good”.
5. The ingredients in the cream increased the production of fibrillin in the skin. Suggest what type of protein fibrillin is?
A structural protein like elastin. (Or perhaps an enzyme that allows more protein synthesis of elastin or reduces break down of elastin)
Fibrillin is a protein so it is too large to enter a cell across a cell membrane. Skin needs human fibrillin and this cannot be made from plant extracts or from genetically modified organisms.
The extract might switch on inactive genes on in the skin cells. Or it might inhibit the breakdown of fibrillin.
Other genes might also start to produce other proteins at higher levels.
Bias might give unfair results or conclusions.
Maybe not: - The professor was funded by the manufacturer. He might get further funding if he published the “right results” that the manufacturer wanted
Probably: - He designed the tests independently.
He could get agreement to publish his findings whichever result he found.
He used the same methods approved for testing new medicines
Yes - The cream was effective in most people (70% of people).
No – The cream was not effective in 30% of people.
The manufacturer advertised the good results of the scientific study to the public.
The claims are based on independent research using correct scientific procedures. The trial should have been randomised and double blind but we are not given this information.
No ,this means that there is a 30% chance it would not work, but a 70% chance it would work.
This has not been tested so there is no evidence to support this idea. There may be risks involved in using too much.
17. The new cream is twice as good as normal anti-wrinkle creams but the new cream was found to be effective in 70% of the people who tested it. What does this tell you about the effectiveness of normal anti-wrinkle creams?
18. Is the method of measuring the effectiveness of the new cream accurate?
Normal anti-wrinkle creams are only half as effective as the new cream so they must be effective in 35% of the people who used it.
There is no information given. Asking the individuals their opinion is subjective and non-quantitative so less accurate. Using trained dermatologists to make judgements and take measurements would make the results more accurate.